• 1
    Kalk JJ, Huisjes AJ, de Groot CJ, van Beek E, van Pampus MG, Spaanderman ME, van Eyck J, Oei SG, Bezemer PD, de Vries JI. Recurrence rate of pre-eclampsia in women with thrombophilia influenced by low-molecular-weight heparin treatment? Neth J Med 2004; 62: 837.
  • 2
    Lain KY, Roberts JM. Contemporary concepts of the pathogenesis and management of preeclampsia. JAMA 2002; 287: 31836.
  • 3
    Kist WJ, Janssen NG, Kalk JJ, Hague WM, Dekker GA, de Vries JI. Thrombophilias and adverse pregnancy outcome – A confounded problem! Thromb Haemost 2008; 99: 7785.
  • 4
    Askie LM, Duley L, Henderson-Smart DJ, Stewart LA. Antiplatelet agents for prevention of pre-eclampsia: a meta-analysis of individual patient data. Lancet 2007; 369: 17918.
  • 5
    Bujold E, Roberge S, Lacasse Y, Bureau M, Audibert F, Marcoux S, Forest JC, Giguère Y. Prevention of preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction with aspirin started in early pregnancy: a meta-analysis. Obstet Gynecol 2010; 116: 40214.
  • 6
    Ruiz-Irastorza G, Crowther M, Branch W, Khamashta MA. Antiphospholipid syndrome. Lancet 2010; 376: 1498509.
  • 7
    Laskin CA, Spitzer KA, Clark CA, Crowther MR, Ginsberg JS, Hawker GA, Kingdom JC, Barrett J, Gent M. Low molecular weight heparin and aspirin for recurrent pregnancy loss: results from the randomized, controlled HepASA Trial. J Rheumatol 2009; 36: 27987.
  • 8
    Riyazi N, Leeda M, de Vries JI, Huijgens PC, van Geijn HP, Dekker GA. Low-molecular-weight heparin combined with aspirin in pregnant women with thrombophilia and a history of preeclampsia or fetal growth restriction: a preliminary study. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 1998; 80: 4954.
  • 9
    Kupferminc MJ, Rimon E, Many A, Sharon M, Lessing JB, Gamzu R. Low molecular weight heparin treatment during subsequent pregnancies of women with inherited thrombophilia and previous severe pregnancy complications. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2011; 24: 10425.
  • 10
    Leduc L, Dubois E, Takser L, Rey E, David M. Dalteparin and low-dose aspirin in the prevention of adverse obstetric outcomes in women with inherited thrombophilia. J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2007; 29: 78793.
  • 11
    Skjaerven R, Gjessing HK, Bakketeig LS. Birthweight by gestational age in Norway. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2000; 79: 4409.
  • 12
    Vinazzer H, Pangraz U. Protein C: comparison of different assays in normal and abnormal plasma samples. Thromb Res 1987; 46: 18.
  • 13
    Woodhams BJ. The simultaneous measurement of total and free protein S by ELISA. Thromb Res 1988; 50: 21320.
  • 14
    Koster T, Rosendaal FR, de Ronde H, Briët E, Vandenbroucke JP, Bertina RM. Venous thrombosis due to poor anticoagulant response to activated protein C: Leiden Thrombophilia Study. Lancet 1993; 342: 15036.
  • 15
    Dahlman TC. Osteoporotic fractures and the recurrence of thromboembolism during pregnancy and the puerperium in 184 women undergoing thromboprophylaxis with heparin. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1993; 168: 126570.
  • 16
    Sanson BJ, Lensing AW, Prins MH, Ginsberg JS, Barkagan ZS, Lavenne-Pardonge E, Brenner B, Dulitzky M, Nielsen JD, Boda Z, Turi S, Mac Gillavry MR, Hamulyák K, Theunissen IM, Hunt BJ, Büller HR. Safety of low-molecular-weight heparin in pregnancy: a systematic review. Thromb Haemost 1999; 81: 66872.
  • 17
    Ganzevoort W, Rep A, de Vries JI, Bonsel GJ, Wolf H. Relationship between thrombophilic disorders and type of severe early-onset hypertensive disorder of pregnancy. Hypertens Pregnancy 2007; 26: 43345.
  • 18
    Rodger MA, Kahn SR, Cranney A, Hodsman A, Kovacs MJ, Clement AM, Lazo-Langner A, Hague WM, TIPPS investigators. Long-term dalteparin in pregnancy not associated with a decrease in bone mineral density: substudy of a randomized controlled trial. J Thromb Haemost 2007; 5: 16006.
  • 19
    Hernandez-Diaz S, Toh S, Cnattingius S. Risk of pre-eclampsia in first and subsequent pregnancies: prospective cohort study. BMJ 2009; 338: b22559.
  • 20
    Duckitt K, Harrington D. Risk factors for pre-eclampsia at antenatal booking: systematic review of controlled studies. BMJ 2005; 330: 56572.
  • 21
    Rey E, Garneau P, David M, Gauthier R, Leduc L, Michon N, Morin F, Demers C, Kahn SR, Magee LA, Rodger M. Dalteparin for the prevention of recurrence of placental-mediated complications of pregnancy in women without thrombophilia: a pilot randomized controlled trial. J Thromb Haemost 2009; 7: 5864.
  • 22
    Sobel ML, Kingdom J, Drewlo S. Angiogenic response of placental villi to heparin. Obstet Gynecol 2011; 117: 137583.
  • 23
    Sela S, Natanson-Yaron S, Zcharia E, Vlodavsky I, Yagel S, Keshet E. Local retention versus systemic release of soluble VEGF receptor-1 are mediated by heparin-binding and regulated by heparanase. Circ Res 2011; 108: 106370.
  • 24
    Abou-Nassar K, Kovacs MJ, Kahn SR, Wells P, Doucette S, Ramsay T, Clement AM, Khurana R, Mackinnon K, Blostein M, Solymoss S, Kingdom J, Sermer M, Rey E, Rodger M, TIPPS investigators. The effect of dalteparin on coagulation activation during pregnancy in women with thrombophilia. A randomized trial. Thromb Haemost 2007; 98: 16371.
  • 25
    Drewlo S, Walker M, Mcleod A, Dodd J, Kingdom J. Heparin in human placental development and the prevention of placental complications of pregnancy. Fetal and Maternal Medicine Review, 2010; 21: 185203.
  • 26
    Bombeli T, Raddatz Mueller P, Fehr J. Evaluation of an optimal dose of low-molecular-weight heparin for thromboprophylaxis in pregnant women at risk of thrombosis using coagulation activation markers. Haemostasis 2001; 31: 908.
  • 27
    Gris JC, Mercier E, Quéré I, Lavigne-Lissalde G, Cochery-Nouvellon E, Hoffet M, Ripart-Neveu S, Tailland ML, Dauzat M, Marès P. Low-molecular-weight heparin versus low-dose aspirin in women with one fetal loss and a constitutional thrombophilic disorder. Blood 2004; 103: 36959.
  • 28
    Kaandorp SP, Goddijn M, van der Post JA, Hutten BA, Verhoeve HR, Hamulyák K, Mol BW, Folkeringa N, Nahuis M, Papatsonis DN, Büller HR, van der Veen F, Middeldorp S. Aspirin plus heparin or aspirin alone in women with recurrent miscarriage. N Engl J Med 2010; 362: 158696.
  • 29
    Ensom MH, Stephenson MD. Pharmacokinetics of low molecular weight heparin and unfractionated heparin in pregnancy. J Soc Gynecol Investig 2004; 11: 37783.