• 1
    Bayard V, Chamorro F, Motta J, Hollenberg NK. Does flavanol intake influence mortality from nitric oxide-dependent processes? Ischemic heart disease, stroke, diabetes mellitus, and cancer in panama Int J Med Sci 2007; 4: 538.
  • 2
    Arts IC, Hollman PC, Feskens EJ, Bueno de Mesquita HB, Kromhout D. Catechin intake might explain the inverse relation between tea consumption and ischemic heart disease: the zutphen elderly study. Am J Clin Nutr 2001; 74: 22732.
  • 3
    Buijsse B, Feskens EJ, Kok FJ, Kromhout D. Cocoa intake, blood pressure, and cardiovascular mortality: the zutphen elderly study. Arch Intern Med 2006; 166: 4117.
  • 4
    Buijsse B, Weikert C, Drogan D, Bergmann M, Boeing H. Chocolate consumption in relation to blood pressure and risk of cardiovascular disease in german adults. Eur Heart J 2010; 31: 161623.
  • 5
    Arts IC, Jacobs DR Jr, Harnack LJ, Gross M, Folsom AR. Dietary catechins in relation to coronary heart disease death among postmenopausal women. Epidemiology 2001; 12: 66875.
  • 6
    Hertog MG, Feskens EJ, Hollman PC, Katan MB, Kromhout D. Dietary antioxidant flavonoids and risk of coronary heart disease: the zutphen elderly study. Lancet 1993; 342: 100711.
  • 7
    Collaborative overview of randomised trials of antiplatelet therapy--i: prevention of death, myocardial infarction, and stroke by prolonged antiplatelet therapy in various categories of patients. Antiplatelet trialists’ collaboration. BMJ 1994; 308: 81106.
  • 8
    Violi F, Pignatelli P, Basili S. Nutrition, supplements, and vitamins in platelet function and bleeding. Circulation 2010; 121: 103344.
  • 9
    Rein D, Paglieroni TG, Wun T, Pearson DA, Schmitz HH, Gosselin R, Keen CL. Cocoa inhibits platelet activation and function. Am J Clin Nutr 2000; 72: 305.
  • 10
    Pearson DA, Paglieroni TG, Rein D, Wun T, Schramm DD, Wang JF, Holt RR, Gosselin R, Schmitz HH, Keen CL. The effects of flavanol-rich cocoa and aspirin on ex vivo platelet function. Thromb Res 2002; 106: 1917.
  • 11
    Innes AJ, Kennedy G, McLaren M, Bancroft AJ, Belch JJ. Dark chocolate inhibits platelet aggregation in healthy volunteers. Platelets 2003; 14: 3257.
  • 12
    Murphy KJ, Chronopoulos AK, Singh I, Francis MA, Moriarty H, Pike MJ, Turner AH, Mann NJ, Sinclair AJ. Dietary flavanols and procyanidin oligomers from cocoa (Theobroma cacao) inhibit platelet function. Am J Clin Nutr 2003; 77: 146673.
  • 13
    Heptinstall S, May J, Fox S, Kwik-Uribe C, Zhao L. Cocoa flavanols and platelet and leukocyte function: recent in vitro and ex vivo studies in healthy adults. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2006; 47: S197205.
  • 14
    Hermann F, Spieker LE, Ruschitzka F, Sudano I, Hermann M, Binggeli C, Lu¨scher TF, Riesen W, Noll G, Corti R. Dark chocolate improbe endothelial and platelet function. Heart 2006; 92: 11920.
  • 15
    Flammer AJ, Hermann F, Sudano I, Spieker L, Hermann M, Cooper KA, Serafini M, Lu¨scher TF, Ruschitzka F, Noll G, Corti R. Dark chocolate improves coronary vasomotion and reduces platelet reactivity. Circulation 2007; 116: 237682.
  • 16
    Hamed MS, Gambert S, Bliden KP, Bailon O, Anand S, Antonino MJ, Hamed F, Tantry US, Gurbel PA. Dark chocolate effect on platelet activity, C-reactive protein and lipid profile: a pilot study. South Med J 2008; 101: 12038.
  • 17
    Pignatelli P, Di Santo S, Buchetti B, Sanguigni V, Brunelli A, Violi F. Polyphenols enhance platelet nitric oxide by inhibiting protein kinase c-dependent nadph oxidase activation: effect on platelet recruitment. FASEB J 2006; 20: 10829.
  • 18
    Pignatelli P, Carnevale R, Di Santo S, Bartimoccia S, Sanguigni V, Lenti L, Finocchi A, Mendolicchio L, Soresina AR, Plebani A, Violi F. Inherited human gp91phox deficiency is associated with impaired isoprostane formation and platelet dysfunction. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2011; 31: 42334.
  • 19
    Corti R, Flammer AJ, Hollenberg NK, Luscher TF. Cocoa and cardiovascular health. Circulation 2009; 119: 143341.
  • 20
    Serafini M, Bugianesi R, Maiani G, Valtuena S, De Santis S, Crozier A. Plasma antioxidants from chocolate. Nature 2003; 424: 1013.
  • 21
    van der Vaart H, Postma DS, Timens W, ten Hacken NH. Acute effects of cigarette smoke on inflammation and oxidative stress: a review. Thorax 2004; 59: 71321.
  • 22
    Pamukcu B, Oflaz H, Onur I, Cimen A, Nisanci Y. Effect of cigarette smoking on platelet aggregation. Clin Appl Thromb Hemost 2011; DOI: 10.1177/1076029610394440.
  • 23
    Hoffman SW, Roof RL, Stein DG. A reliable and sensitive enzyme immunoassay method for measuring 8-isoprostaglandin f2 alpha: a marker for lipid peroxidation after experimental brain injury. J Neurosci Methods 1996; 68: 1336.
  • 24
    Pignatelli P, Carnevale R, Cangemi R, Loffredo L, Sanguigni V, Stefanutti C, Basili S, Violi F. Atorvastatin inhibits gp91phox circulating levels in patients with hypercholesterolemia. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2010; 30: 3607.
  • 25
    Krotz F, Sohn HY, Gloe T, Zahler S, Riexinger T, Schiele TM, Becker BF, Theisen K, Klauss V, Pohl U. Nad(p)h oxidase-dependent platelet superoxide anion release increases platelet recruitment. Blood 2002; 100: 91724.
  • 26
    Pignatelli P, Pulcinelli FM, Celestini A, Lenti L, Ghiselli A, Gazzaniga PP, Violi F. The flavonoids quercetin and catechin synergistically inhibit platelet function by antagonizing the intracellular production of hydrogen peroxide. Am J Clin Nutr 2000; 72: 11505.
  • 27
    Pulcinelli FM, Riondino S, Celestini A, Pignatelli P, Trifiro E, Di Renzo L, Violi F. Persistent production of platelet thromboxane a2 in patients chronically treated with aspirin. J Thromb Haemost 2005; 3: 27849.
  • 28
    Soleas GJ, Yan J, Goldberg DM. Ultrasensitive assay for three polyphenols (catechin, quercetin and resveratrol) and their conjugates in biological fluids utilizing gas chromatography with mass selective detection. J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl 2001; 757: 16172.
  • 29
    Chang C, Wu R. Quantification of (+)-catechin and (−)-epicatechin in coconut water by lc–ms. Food Chem 2011; 126: 7107.
  • 30
    Hills M, Armitage P. The two-period cross-over clinical trial. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1979; 8: 720.
  • 31
    Pignatelli P, Lenti L, Sanguigni V, Frati G, Simeoni I, Gazzaniga PP, Pulcinelli FM, Violi F. Carnitine inhibits arachidonic acid turnover, platelet function, and oxidative stress. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2003; 284: H418.
  • 32
    Morrow JD, Hill KE, Burk RF, Nammour TM, Badr KF, Roberts LJ, 2nd. A series of prostaglandin f2-like compounds are produced in vivo in humans by a non-cyclooxygenase, free radical-catalyzed mechanism. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1990; 87: 93837.
  • 33
    Violi F, Sanguigni V, Carnevale R, Plebani A, Rossi P, Finocchi A, Pignata C, De Mattia D, Martire B, Pietrogrande MC, Martino S, Gambineri E, Soresina AR, Pignatelli P, Martino F, Basili S, Loffredo L. Hereditary deficiency of gp91(phox) is associated with enhanced arterial dilatation: results of a multicenter study. Circulation 2009; 120: 161622.
  • 34
    McAdam BF, Byrne D, Morrow JD, Oates JA. Contribution of cyclooxygenase-2 to elevated biosynthesis of thromboxane a2 and prostacyclin in cigarette smokers. Circulation 2005; 112: 10249.
  • 35
    Pignatelli P, Pulcinelli FM, Lenti L, Gazzaniga PP, Violi F. Vitamin e inhibits collagen-induced platelet activation by blunting hydrogen peroxide. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1999; 19: 25427.
  • 36
    Murohara T, Ikeda H, Otsuka Y, Aoki M, Haramaki N, Katoh A, Takajo Y, Imaizumi T. Inhibition of platelet adherence to mononuclear cells by alpha-tocopherol: role of p-selectin. Circulation 2004; 110: 1418.
  • 37
    Steffen Y, Schewe T, Sies H. (-)-epicatechin elevates nitric oxide in endothelial cells via inhibition of nadph oxidase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2007; 359: 82833.
  • 38
    Violi F, Loffredo L, Musella L, Marcoccia A. Should antioxidant status be considered in interventional trials with antioxidants? Heart 2004; 90: 598602.