Summary. Background: Prophylaxis with factor (F)VIII is considered the optimal treatment for managing hemophilia A patients without inhibitors. Objectives: To compare the efficacy of two prophylaxis regimens (primary outcome) and of on-demand and prophylaxis treatments (secondary outcome), and to continue the evaluation of immunogenicity and overall safety of the ADVATE Antihemophilic Factor (Recombinant), Plasma/Albumin Free Method (rAHF-PFM). Patients/Methods: Previously on-demand-treated patients aged 7–59 years (n = 66) with FVIII levels ≤ 2% received 6 months of on-demand treatment and then were randomized to 12 months of either standard (20–40 IU kg−1 every other day) or pharmacokinetic (PK)-tailored (20–80 IU kg−1 every third day) prophylaxis, both regimens intended to maintain FVIII trough levels at or above 1%. Efficacy was evaluated in terms of annualized bleeding rates (ABRs). As subjects were first treated on-demand and then on prophylaxis, statistical comparisons between these treatments were paired. Results: Twenty-two (33.3%) subjects on prophylaxis experienced no bleeding episodes, whereas none treated on-demand were free from an episode of bleeding. ABRs for the two prophylaxis regimens were comparable, whereas differences between on-demand and either prophylaxis were statistically significant (P < 0.0001): median (interquartile range [IQR]) ABRs were 43.9 (21.9), 1.0 (3.5), 2.0 (6.9) and 1.1 (4.9) during on-demand treatment, standard, PK-tailored and any prophylaxis, respectively. There were no differences in FVIII consumption or adverse event rates between prophylaxis regimens. No subject developed FVIII inhibitors. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates comparable safety and effectiveness for two prophylaxis regimens and that prophylaxis significantly reduces bleeding compared with on-demand treatment. PK-tailored prophylaxis offers an alternative to standard prophylaxis for the prevention of bleeding.