Different bleeding risk in type 2A and 2M von Willebrand disease: a 2-year prospective study in 107 patients


Giancarlo Castaman, Department of Cell Therapy and Hematology, San Bortolo Hospital, I-36100 Vicenza, Italy.
Tel.: +39 444 753679; fax: +39 444 753922.
E-mail: castaman@hemato.ven.it


Summary.  Background:  Type 2A and 2M von Willebrand disease (VWD2A and VWD2M) are characterized by the presence of a dysfunctional von Willebrand factor (VWF) and a variable bleeding tendency. So far, a head-to-head comparison of the clinical history and bleeding risk between VWD2A and VWD2M has never been provided in a prospective manner.

Aim of the study:  We assessed the bleeding incidence rate and clinical characteristics in two cohorts of 17 families (46 patients) with VWD2A and 15 families (61 patients) with VWD2M prospectively followed-up for 24 months. VWF gene mutations were characterized in all of them.

Results:  Mean bleeding score (BS) and VWF antigen at enrollment were significantly higher in VWD2A patients (P = 0.007). No correlation between VWF activity or factor VIII levels and the severity of BS was observed. The incidence rate of spontaneous bleeding requiring treatment was 107/100 patient-years (95% CI, 88.3–131) in VWD2A compared with 40/100 patient-years (95% CI, 30–53) in VWD2M (P < 0.001). The risk of bleeding was significantly higher in patients with BS ≥ 10 at enrollment compared with those with BS 0–2. Furthermore, 54 episodes of gastrointestinal bleeding occurred in 17/46 (36.9%) VWD2A patients and seven in 2/61 (3.3%) VWD2M patients (P < 0.0001).

Conclusion:  Bleeding tendency in VWD2A is greater than that of VWD2M, is not explained by factor VIII or VWF levels and is mainly due to an increased incidence of gastrointestinal bleeding.