• 1
    Bloembergen WE, Port FK, Mauger EA, Wolfe RA. Causes of death in dialysis patients: racial and gender differences. J Am Soc Nephrol 1994; 5: 123142.
  • 2
    Cheung AK, Sarnak MJ, Yan G, Berkoben M, Heyka R, Kaufman A, Lewis J, Rocco M, Toto R, Windus D, Ornt D, Levey AS. Cardiac diseases in maintenance hemodialysis patients: results of the HEMO Study. Kidney Int 2004; 65: 23809.
  • 3
    de Jager DJ, Grootendorst DC, Jager KJ, van Dijk PC, Tomas LM, Ansell D, Collart F, Finne P, Heaf JG, De MJ, Wetzels JF, Rosendaal FR, Dekker FW. Cardiovascular and noncardiovascular mortality among patients starting dialysis. JAMA 2009; 302: 17829.
  • 4
    Foley RN, Parfrey PS, Sarnak MJ. Epidemiology of cardiovascular disease in chronic renal disease. J Am Soc Nephrol 1998; 9: S1623.
  • 5
    Foley RN, Parfrey PS, Sarnak MJ. Clinical epidemiology of cardiovascular disease in chronic renal disease. Am J Kidney Dis 1998; 32: S1129.
  • 6
    Villar E, Remontet L, Labeeuw M, Ecochard R. Effect of age, gender, and diabetes on excess death in end-stage renal failure. J Am Soc Nephrol 2007; 18: 212534.
  • 7
    Eknoyan G, Wacksman SJ, Glueck HI, Will JJ. Platelet function in renal failure. N Engl J Med 1969; 280: 67781.
  • 8
    Ifudu O, Delaney VB, Barth RH, Friedman EA. Deep vein thrombosis in end-stage renal disease. ASAIO J 1994; 40: 1035.
  • 9
    Guntupalli K, Soffer O, Baciewicz P. Pulmonary embolism in end stage renal disease. Intensive Care Med 1990; 16: 4057.
  • 10
    Mossey RT, Kasabian AA, Wilkes BM, Mailloux LU, Susin M, Bluestone PA. Pulmonary embolism low incidence in chronic renal failure. Arch Intern Med 1982; 142: 16468.
  • 11
    Rotter W, Roettger P. Comparative pathologic-anatomic study of cases of chronic global renal insufficiency with and without preceding hemodialysis. Clin Nephrol 1973; 1: 25765.
  • 12
    Wiesholzer M, Kitzwogerer M, Harm F, Barbieri G, Hauser AC, Pribasnig A, Bankl H, Balcke P. Prevalence of preterminal pulmonary thromboembolism among patients on maintenance hemodialysis treatment before and after introduction of recombinant erythropoietin. Am J Kidney Dis 1999; 33: 7028.
  • 13
    Trespalacios FC, Taylor AJ, Agodoa LY, Abbott KC. Incident acute coronary syndromes in chronic dialysis patients in the United States. Kidney Int 2002; 62: 1799805.
  • 14
    Delmez JA, Yan G, Bailey J, Beck GJ, Beddhu S, Cheung AK, Kaysen GA, Levey AS, Sarnak MJ, Schwab SJ. Cerebrovascular disease in maintenance hemodialysis patients: results of the HEMO Study. Am J Kidney Dis 2006; 47: 1318.
  • 15
    Sozio SM, Armstrong PA, Coresh J, Jaar BG, Fink NE, Plantinga LC, Powe NR, Parekh RS. Cerebrovascular disease incidence, characteristics, and outcomes in patients initiating dialysis: the choices for healthy outcomes in caring for ESRD (CHOICE) study. Am J Kidney Dis 2009; 54: 46877.
  • 16
    Jager KJ, van Dijk PC, Dekker FW, Cornet R, Krediet RT, Briggs JD. The European Registry: where do we stand? Perit Dial Int 2000; 20(Suppl 2): S11820.
  • 17
    van Dijk PC, Jager KJ, de Charro F, Collart F, Cornet R, Dekker FW, Gronhagen-Riska C, Kramar R, Leivestad T, Simpson K, Briggs JD. Renal replacement therapy in Europe: the results of a collaborative effort by the ERA-EDTA registry and six national or regional registries. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2001; 16: 11209.
  • 18
    Canonico M, Fournier A, Carcaillon L, Olie V, Plu-Bureau G, Oger E, Mesrine S, Boutron-Ruault MC, Clavel-Chapelon F, Scarabin PY. Postmenopausal hormone therapy and risk of idiopathic venous thromboembolism: results from the E3N cohort study. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2010; 30: 3405.
  • 19
    Bojesen SE, Juul K, Schnohr P, Tybjaerg-Hansen A, Nordestgaard BG. Platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Pl(A2)/Pl(A2) homozygosity associated with risk of ischemic cardiovascular disease and myocardial infarction in young men: the Copenhagen City Heart Study. J Am Coll Cardiol 2003; 42: 6617.
  • 20
    Harmsen P, Wilhelmsen L, Jacobsson A. Stroke incidence and mortality rates 1987 to 2006 related to secular trends of cardiovascular risk factors in Gothenburg, Sweden. Stroke 2009; 40: 26917.
  • 21
    Evans M, Fryzek JP, Elinder CG, Cohen SS, McLaughlin JK, Nyren O, Fored CM. The natural history of chronic renal failure: results from an unselected, population-based, inception cohort in Sweden. Am J Kidney Dis 2005; 46: 86370.
  • 22
    Tveit DP, Hypolite IO, Hshieh P, Cruess D, Agodoa LY, Welch PG, Abbott KC. Chronic dialysis patients have high risk for pulmonary embolism. Am J Kidney Dis 2002; 39: 10117.
  • 23
    Ocak G, Vossen CY, Rotmans JI, Lijfering WM, Rosendaal FR, Parlevliet KJ, Krediet RT, Boeschoten EW, Dekker FW, Verduijn M. Venous and arterial thrombosis in dialysis patients. Thromb Haemost 2011; 106: 104652.
  • 24
    Geerts WH, Bergqvist D, Pineo GF, Heit JA, Samama CM, Lassen MR, Colwell CW. Prevention of venous thromboembolism: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines (8th edition). Chest 2008; 133: 381S453S.
  • 25
    Dager WE, Kiser TH. Systemic anticoagulation considerations in chronic kidney disease. Adv Chronic Kidney Dis 2010; 17: 4207.
  • 26
    Herzog CA, Ma JZ, Collins AJ. Poor long-term survival after acute myocardial infarction among patients on long-term dialysis. N Engl J Med 1998; 339: 799805.
  • 27
    Parekh RS, Zhang L, Fivush BA, Klag MJ. Incidence of atherosclerosis by race in the dialysis morbidity and mortality study: a sample of the US ESRD population. J Am Soc Nephrol 2005; 16: 14206.
  • 28
    Seliger SL, Gillen DL, Longstreth WT Jr, Kestenbaum B, Stehman-Breen CO. Elevated risk of stroke among patients with end-stage renal disease. Kidney Int 2003; 64: 6039.
  • 29
    Naess IA, Christiansen SC, Romundstad P, Cannegieter SC, Rosendaal FR, Hammerstrom J. Incidence and mortality of venous thrombosis: a population-based study. J Thromb Haemost 2007; 5: 6929.
  • 30
    Holst AG, Jensen G, Prescott E. Risk factors for venous thromboembolism: results from the Copenhagen City Heart Study. Circulation 2010; 121: 1896903.
  • 31
    Petrauskiene V, Falk M, Waernbaum I, Norberg M, Eriksson JW. The risk of venous thromboembolism is markedly elevated in patients with diabetes. Diabetologia 2005; 48: 101721.
  • 32
    Seliger SL, Gillen DL, Tirschwell D, Wasse H, Kestenbaum BR, Stehman-Breen CO. Risk factors for incident stroke among patients with end-stage renal disease. J Am Soc Nephrol 2003; 14: 262331.
  • 33
    Monreal M, Falga C, Valle R, Barba R, Bosco J, Beato JL, Maestre A. Venous thromboembolism in patients with renal insufficiency: findings from the RIETE Registry. Am J Med 2006; 119: 10739.
  • 34
    Baskin E, Duman O, Besbas N, Ozen S. Hypercoagulopathy in a hemodialysis patient: are elevations in factors VII and VIII effective? Nephron 1999; 83: 180.
  • 35
    Casserly LF, Dember LM. Thrombosis in end-stage renal disease. Semin Dial 2003; 16: 24556.
  • 36
    Romero-Diaz J, Garcia-Sosa I, Sanchez-Guerrero J. Thrombosis in systemic lupus erythematosus and other autoimmune diseases of recent onset. J Rheumatol 2009; 36: 6875.
  • 37
    Stassen PM, Derks RP, Kallenberg CG, Stegeman CA. Venous thromboembolism in ANCA-associated vasculitis – incidence and risk factors. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2008; 47: 5304.
  • 38
    Tomasson G, Monach PA, Merkel PA. Thromboembolic disease in vasculitis. Curr Opin Rheumatol 2009; 21: 416.
  • 39
    Mahmoodi BK, ten Kate MK, Waanders F, Veeger NJ, Brouwer JL, Vogt L, Navis G, van der Meer J. High absolute risks and predictors of venous and arterial thromboembolic events in patients with nephrotic syndrome: results from a large retrospective cohort study. Circulation 2008; 117: 22430.
  • 40
    Smits HF, Van Rijk PP, Van Isselt JW, Mali WP, Koomans HA, Blankestijn PJ. Pulmonary embolism after thrombolysis of hemodialysis grafts. J Am Soc Nephrol 1997; 8: 145861.
  • 41
    Suhocki PV, Conlon PJ Jr, Knelson MH, Harland R, Schwab SJ. Silastic cuffed catheters for hemodialysis vascular access: thrombolytic and mechanical correction of malfunction. Am J Kidney Dis 1996; 28: 37986.
  • 42
    Stack AG, Bloembergen WE. Prevalence and clinical correlates of coronary artery disease among new dialysis patients in the United States: a cross-sectional study. J Am Soc Nephrol 2001; 12: 151623.
  • 43
    Shoji T, Emoto M, Tabata T, Kimoto E, Shinohara K, Maekawa K, Kawagishi T, Tahara H, Ishimura E, Nishizawa Y. Advanced atherosclerosis in predialysis patients with chronic renal failure. Kidney Int 2002; 61: 218792.
  • 44
    Zoccali C. Traditional and emerging cardiovascular and renal risk factors: an epidemiologic perspective. Kidney Int 2006; 70: 2633.