• 1
    Smith K, Petley DN. Environmental Hazards. Assessing Risk and Reducing Disaster. London : Routledge, 2009.
  • 2
    IPCC. Climate Change 2007: Impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. In Parry ML, Canziani OF, Palutikof JP, van der Linden PJ, Hanson CE, (eds). Contribution Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge , UK : Cambridge University Press, 2007.
  • 3
    Siegrist M, Gutscher H. Flooding risks: A comparison of lay people's perceptions and expert's assessments in Switzerland. Risk Analysis, 2006; 26(4):971979.
  • 4
    Merz B, Kreibich H, Schwarze R, Thieken A. Review article “Assessment of economic flood damage”. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 2010; 10(8):16971724.
  • 5
    Terpstra T, Gutteling JM. Households’ perceived responsibilities in flood risk management in the Netherlands. International Journal of Water Resources Development, 2008; 24(4):555565.
  • 6
    Botzen WJW, Aerts JCJH, van den Bergh JCJM. Dependence of flood risk perceptions on socioeconomic and objective risk factors. Water Resources Research, 2009; 45(10):W10440, doi:10.1029/2009WR007743
  • 7
    Figueiredo E, Valente S, Coelho C, Pinho L. Coping with risk: analysis on the importance of integrating social perceptions on flood risk into management mechanisms – The case of the municipality of Agueda, Portugal. Journal of Risk Research, 2009; 12(5):581602.
  • 8
    Renn O. White Paper on Risk Governance: Towards an Integrative Approach. Geneva , Switzerland : International Risk Governance Council (IRGC).
  • 9
    Fischhoff B. Risk perception and communication unplugged – 20 Years of process. Risk Analysis, 1995; 15(2):137145.
  • 10
    Boholm A. Comparative studies of risk perception: a review of twenty years of research. Journal of Risk Research, 1998; 1(2):135163.
  • 11
    Bier VM. On the state of the art: Risk communication to the public. Reliability Engineering & System Safety, 2001; 71(2):139150.
  • 12
    White GF. Human Adjustment to Floods – A Geographical Approach to the Flood Problem in the United States. Chicago : University of Chicago, 1945.
  • 13
    Brilly M, Polic M. Public perception of flood risks, flood forecasting and mitigation. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 2005; 5(3):345355.
  • 14
    Bird DK. The use of questionnaires for acquiring information on public perception of natural hazards and risk mitigation – A review of current knowledge and practice. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 2009; 9(4):13071325.
  • 15
    Starr C. Social benefit versus technological risk. Science, 1969; 165(3899):12321238.
  • 16
    Sjöberg L, Moen B, Rundmo T. Explaining Risk Perception: An Evaluation of the Psychometric Paradigm in Risk Perception Research. Trondheim : Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Psychology, 2004.
  • 17
    Craye M, Goorden L, Van Gelder S, Vandenabeele J. Milieu en gezondheid: naar een adequate dialoog tussen overheid, bevolking en wetenschap. Studiecentrum Technologie Energie en Milieu (STEM), Antwerp University, 2001.
  • 18
    Covello VT, von Winterfeldt D, Slovic P. Risk communication: A review of literature. Risk Abstracts, 1986; 3:171182.
  • 19
    Trettin L, Musham C. Is trust a realistic goal of environmental risk communication? Environment and Behavior, 2000; 32(3):410426.
  • 20
    Boholm A. New perspectives on risk communication: Uncertainty in a complex society. Journal of Risk Research, 2008; 11(1–2):13.
  • 21
    Basic F. Geographic Visualisation Tools for Communicating Flood Risks to The Public. Melbourne , Australia : RMIT University, 2009. 230 p.
  • 22
    Renn O. Three decades of risk research: Accomplishments and new challenges. Journal of Risk Research, 1998; 1(1):4971.
  • 23
    Habermans J. The Theory of Communication Action. Cambridge : Beacon Press; 1985.
  • 24
    Petts J. Public engagement to build trust: False hopes? Journal of Risk Research, 2008; 11(6):821835.
  • 25
    Pidgeon NF. The Psychology of Risk. Pp. 167185 in Blockley DI (ed., translator and editor). Engineering Safety. Maidenhead : McGraw-Hill; 1992.
  • 26
    Ali AMS. September 2004 flood event in southwestern Bangladesh: A study of its nature, causes, and human perception and adjustments to a new hazard. Natural Hazards, 2007; 40(1):89111.
  • 27
    Armas I, Avram E. Perception of flood risk in Danube Delta, Romania. Natural Hazards, 2009; 50(2):269287.
  • 28
    Arthur S, Crow H, Karikas N. Including public perception data in the evaluation of the consequences of sewerage derived urban flooding. Water Science and Technology, 2009; 60(1):231242.
  • 29
    Bell HM, Tobin GA. Efficient and effective? The 100-year flood in the communication and perception of flood risk. Environmental Hazards, 2007; 7(4):302311.
  • 30
    Benight CC, Gruntfest EC, Hayden M, Barnes L. Trauma and short-fuse weather warning perceptions. Environmental Hazards, 2007; 7(3):220226.
  • 31
    Botzen WJW, Aerts JCJH, van den Bergh JCJM. Willingness of homeowners to mitigate climate risk through insurance. Ecological Economics, 2009; 68(8–9):22652277.
  • 32
    Burningham K, Fielding J, Thrush D. ‘It’ll never happen to me’: Understanding public awareness of local flood risk. Disasters, 2008; 32(2):216238.
  • 33
    Correia FN, Fordham M, Saraiva MdG, Bernardo F. Flood hazard assessment and management: Interface with the public. Water Resources Management, 1998; 12(3):209227.
  • 34
    De Villiers GD, Maharaj R. Human perceptions and responses to floods with specific reference to the 1987 flood in the Mdloti River near Durban, South-Africa. Water SA, 1994; 20(1):913.
  • 35
    Ge Y, Xu W, Gu Z-H, Zhang Y-C, Chen L. Risk perception and hazard mitigation in the Yangtze River Delta region, China. Natural Hazards, 2011; 56(3):633648.
  • 36
    Griffin RJ, Yang Z, ter Huurne E, Boerner F, Ortiz S, Dunwoody S. After the flood – Anger, attribution, and the seeking of information. Science Communication, 2008; 29(3):285315.
  • 37
    Grothmann T, Reusswig F. People at risk of flooding: Why some residents take precautionary action while others do not. Natural Hazards, 2006; 38(1–2):101120.
  • 38
    Harries T. Feeling secure or being secure? Why it can seem better not to protect yourself against a natural hazard. Health Risk & Society, 2008; 10(5):479490.
  • 39
    Heitz C, Spaeter S, Auzet AV, Glatron S. Local stakeholders’ perception of muddy flood risk and implications for management approaches: A case study in Alsace (France). Land Use Policy, 2009; 26(2):443451.
  • 40
    Ho MC, Shaw D, Lin SY, Chiu YC. How do disaster characteristics influence risk perception? Risk Analysis, 2008; 28(3):635643.
  • 41
    Horney JA, MacDonald PDM, Van Willigen M, Berke PR, Kaufman JS. Individual actual or perceived property flood risk: Did it predict evacuation from Hurricane Isabel in North Carolina, 2003? Risk Analysis, 2010; 30(3):501511.
  • 42
    Hung HC. The attitude towards flood insurance purchase when respondents’ preferences are uncertain: A fuzzy approach. Journal of Risk Research, 2009; 12(2):239258.
  • 43
    Kellens W, Zaalberg R, Neutens T, Vanneuville W, De Maeyer P. An analysis of the public perception of flood risk on the Belgian Coast. Risk Analysis, 2011; 31(7):10551068.
  • 44
    Keller C, Siegrist M, Gutscher H. The role of the affect and availability heuristics in risk communication. Risk Analysis, 2006; 26(3):631639.
  • 45
    Knocke ET, Kolivras KN. Flash flood awareness in southwest Virginia. Risk Analysis, 2007; 27(1):155169.
  • 46
    Krasovskaia I. Perception of the risk of flooding: The case of the 1995 flood in Norway. Hydrological Sciences Journal-Journal Des Sciences Hydrologiques, 2001; 46(6):855868.
  • 47
    Krasovskaia I, Gottschalk L, Ibrekk AS, Berg H. Perception of flood hazard in countries of the North Sea region of Europe. Nordic Hydrology, 2007; 38(4–5):387399.
  • 48
    Kreibich H, Muller M, Thieken AH, Merz B. Flood precaution of companies and their ability to cope with the flood in August 2002 in Saxony, Germany. Water Resources Research, 2007; 43(3):W03408, doi:10.1029/2005WR004691.
  • 49
    Kreibich H, Thieken AH, Grunenberg H, Ullrich K, Sommer T. Extent, perception and mitigation of damage due to high groundwater levels in the city of Dresden, Germany. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 2009; 9(4):12471258.
  • 50
    Lara A, Sauri D, Ribas A, Pavon D. Social perceptions of floods and flood management in a Mediterranean area (Costa Brava, Spain). Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 2010; 10(10):20812091.
  • 51
    Lave TR, Lave LB. Public perception of the risks of floods – Implications for communication. Risk Analysis, 1991; 11(2):255267.
  • 52
    Lin SY, Shaw DG, Ho MC. Why are flood and landslide victims less willing to take mitigation measures than the public? Natural Hazards, 2008; 44(2):305314.
  • 53
    Lindell MK, Hwang SN. Households’ perceived personal risk and responses in a multihazard environment. Risk Analysis, 2008; 28(2):539556.
  • 54
    Lopez-Marrero T. An integrative approach to study and promote natural hazards adaptive capacity: A case study of two flood-prone communities in Puerto Rico. Geographical Journal, 2010; 176:150163.
  • 55
    Lopez-Marrero T, Yarnal B. Putting adaptive capacity into the context of people's lives: A case study of two flood-prone communities in Puerto Rico. Natural Hazards, 2010; 52(2):277297.
  • 56
    Martens T, Garrelts H, Grunenberg H, Lange H. Taking the heterogeneity of citizens into account: Flood risk communication in coastal cities – A case study of Bremen. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 2009; 9(6):19311940.
  • 57
    McEwen L, Hall T, Hunt J, Dempsey M, Harrison M. Flood warning, warning response and planning control issues associated with caravan parks: The April 1998 floods on the lower Avon floodplain, Midlands region, UK. Applied Geography, 2002; 22(3):271305.
  • 58
    Miceli R, Sotgiu I, Settanni M. Disaster preparedness and perception of flood risk: A study in an alpine valley in Italy. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 2008; 28(2):164173.
  • 59
    Olcina Cantos J, Hernandez Hernandez M, Rico Amoros AM, Martinez Ibarra E. Increased risk of flooding on the coast of Alicante (Region of Valencia, Spain). Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 2010; 10(11):22292234.
  • 60
    Ologunorisa T, Adeyemo A. Public perception of flood hazard in the Niger Delta, Nigeria. The Environmentalist, 2005; 25(1):3945.
  • 61
    Pagneux E, Gisladottir G, Jonsdottir S. Public perception of flood hazard and flood risk in Iceland: A case study in a watershed prone to ice-jam floods. Natural Hazards, 2011; 58(1):269287.
  • 62
    Raaijmakers R, Krywkow J, van der Veen A. Flood risk perceptions and spatial multi-criteria analysis: An exploratory research for hazard mitigation. Natural Hazards, 2008; 46(3):307322.
  • 63
    Ruin I, Gaillard J-C, Lutoff C. How to get there? Assessing motorists’ flash flood risk perception on daily itineraries. Environmental Hazards, 2007; 7(3):235244.
  • 64
    Siegrist M, Gutscher H. Natural hazards and motivation for mitigation behavior: People cannot predict the affect evoked by a severe flood. Risk Analysis, 2008; 28(3):771778.
  • 65
    Takao K, Motoyoshi T, Sato T, Fukuzono T. Factors determining residents’ preparedness for floods in modern megalopolises: The case of the Tokai flood disaster in Japan. Journal of Risk Research, 2004; 7(7–8):775787.
  • 66
    Terpstra T. Emotions, trust and perceived risk: Affective and cognitive routes to flood preparedness behavior. Risk Analysis, 2011; 31(10):16581675.
  • 67
    Terpstra T, Gutteling JM, Geldof GD, Kappe LJ. The perception of flood risk and water nuisance. Water Science and Technology, 2006; 54(6–7):431439.
  • 68
    Terpstra T, Lindell MK, Gutteling JM. Does communicating (Flood) risk affect (Flood) risk perceptions? Results of a Quasi-Experimental study. Risk Analysis, 2009; 29(8):11411155.
  • 69
    Thieken AH, Petrow T, Kreibich H, Merz B. Insurability and mitigation of flood losses in private households in Germany. Risk Analysis, 2006; 26(2):383395.
  • 70
    Thieken AH, Kreibich H, Muller M, Merz B. Coping with floods: Preparedness, response and recovery of flood-affected residents in Germany in 2002. Hydrological Sciences Journal-Journal Des Sciences Hydrologiques, 2007; 52(5):10161037.
  • 71
    Wagner K. Mental models of flash floods and landslides. Risk Analysis, 2007; 27(3):671682.
  • 72
    Wong KK, Zhao XB. Living with floods: Victims’ perceptions in Beijiang, Guangdong, China. Area, 2001; 33(2):190201.
  • 73
    Zaalberg R, Midden C, Meijnders A, McCalley T. Prevention, adaptation, and threat denial: Flooding experiences in the Netherlands. Risk Analysis, 2009; 29(12):17591778.
  • 74
    Zhai GF, Ikeda S. Flood risk acceptability and economic value of evacuation. Risk Analysis, 2006; 26(3):683694.
  • 75
    Zhai GF, Sato T, Fukuzono T, Ikeda S, Yoshida K. Willingness to pay for flood risk reduction and its determinants in Japan. Journal of the American Water Resources Association, 2006; 42(4):927940.
  • 76
    Zhai G, Ikeda S. Empirical analysis of Japanese flood risk acceptability within multi-risk context. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 2008; 8(5):10491066.
  • 77
    Zhang Y, Hwang SN, Lindell MK. Hazard proximity or risk perception? Evaluating effects of natural and technological hazards on housing values. Environment and Behavior, 2010; 42(5):597624.
  • 78
    Saunders M, Lewis P, Thornhill A. Research Methods for Business Students. United Kingdom : Pearson Education Limited, 2006; 599 p.
  • 79
    Lindell MK, Perry RW. Household adjustment to earthquake hazard – A review of research. Environment and Behavior, 2000; 32(4):461501.
  • 80
    Alreck PL, Settle RB. The Survey Research Handbook. 3rd ed. New York : McGraw-Hill; 2004.
  • 81
    Whitmarsh L. Are flood victims more concerned about climate change than other people? The role of direct experience in risk perception and behavioural response. Journal of Risk Research, 2008; 11(3):351374.
  • 82
    Fischhoff B, Slovic P, Lichtenstein S, Read S, Combs B. How safe is safe enough – Psychometric study of attitudes towards technological risks and benefits. Policy Sciences, 1978; 9(2):127152.
  • 83
    Slovic P. Perception of Risk. Science, 1987; 236(4799):280285.
  • 84
    Tversky A, Kahnemann D. Judgment under uncertainty: Heuristics and biases. Science, 1974; 185:11241131.
  • 85
    Slovic P, Finucane ML, Peters E, MacGregor DG. Risk as analysis and risk as feelings: Some thoughts about affect, reason, risk, and rationality. Risk Analysis, 2004; 24(2):311322.
  • 86
    Lindell MK, Perry RW. Communicating Environmental Risk in Multiethnic Communities. Thousand Oaks , CA : Sage Publications, 2004.
  • 87
    FEMA. A Nation prepared.
  • 88
    ten Brinke WBM, Saeijs GEM, Helsloot I, van Alphen J. Safety chain approach in flood risk management. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers-Municipal Engineer, 2008; 161(2):93102.
  • 89
    Vroom VH. Work and Motivation. New York : Wiley, 1964.
  • 90
    Griffin RJ, Dunwoody S, Neuwirth K. Proposed model of the relationship of risk information seeking and processing to the development of preventive behaviors. Environmental Research, 1999; 80(2):S230S245.
  • 91
    Norman P, Boer H, Seydel ER. Protection motivation theory. Pp. 81126. in Norman P, Conner M (eds). Predicting Health Behaviour: Research and Practice with Social Cognition Models. Berkshire , England : Open University Press, 2005
  • 92
    Weinstein ND. Testing four competing theories of health-protective behavior. Health Psychology, 1993; 12(4):324333.
  • 93
    Weyma A. Risk communication – A mental models approach. Journal of Risk Research, 2003; 6(1):9394.
  • 94
    Visschers VHM, Meertens RM, Passchier WF, de Vries NK. How does the general public evaluate risk information? The impact of associations with other risks. Risk Analysis, 2007; 27(3):715727.
  • 95
    Halpern-Felsher BL, Millstein SG, Ellen JM, Adler NE, Tschann JM, Biehl M. The role of behavioral experience in judging risks. Health Psychology, 2001; 20(2):120126.
  • 96
    Wilson C. Education and risk. Pp. 5368 in Handmer J, Penning-Rowsell E (eds). Hazards and the Communication of Risk. Brookfield , VT : Gower, 1990.
  • 97
    Peacock WG, Brody SD, Highfield W. Hurricane risk perceptions among Florida's single family homeowners. Landscape and Urban Planning, 2005; 73(2–3):120135.
  • 98
    Burn DH. Perceptions of flood risk: A case study of the Red River flood of 1997. Water Resources Research, 1999; 35(11):34513458.
  • 99
    Griffin RJ, Neuwirth K, Dunwoody S, Giese J. Information sufficiency and risk communication. Media Psychology, 2004; 6(1):2361.
  • 100
    Weinstein ND, Nicolich M. Correct and incorrect interpretations of correlations between risk perceptions and risk behaviors. Health Psychology, 1993; 12(3):235245.
  • 101
    Hagemeier-Klose M, Wagner K. Evaluation of flood hazard maps in print and web mapping services as information tools in flood risk communication. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 2009; 9(2):563574.