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During the 1950s there was an effort to assimilate the idea that a married woman could work if her family came first. Women with genuine career interest were described as both rare and maladjusted; research data were interpreted as supporting this negative view. Today there is a decrease in the emphasis on motherhood and a new look at career women. Even women who matured in an earlier day have been favorably described in research findings. Current research gives a more differentiated view of the personality of career women, analyzes the institutional arrangements and prejudiced attitudes which handicap women, and reappraises the concepts of masculine and feminine characteristics and their roles in the personality.