Intrinsic Versus Community-Based Justice Models: When Does Group Membership Matter?


  • Tom R. Tyler,

    Corresponding author
    1. Northwestern University
      Psychology Department, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, 60201
    Search for more papers by this author
    • 5

      TOM R. TYLER is Professor of Psychology and Political Science at North-western University, a Research Fellow at the American Bar Foundation, and a member of the Northwestern University Center for Urban Affairs and Policy Research. He is the author of two recent books: The Social Psychology of Procedural Justice (with Allan Lind) and Why People Follow the Law: Procedural Justice, Legitimacy, and Compliance. His research interests include procedural justice and legal and political psychology.

  • E. Allan Lind

    1. RAND Corporation
    Search for more papers by this author
    • 4

      American Bar Foundation

    • 6

      E. ALLAN LIND is Senior Behavioral Scientist at the Institute for Civil Justice of the RAND Corporation. He is coauthor of The Social Psychology of Procedural Justice. His research interests include alternative dispute resolution, procedural justice, cross-cultural psychology, and psycholinguistics.

Psychology Department, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, 60201


This paper examines the effects of group membership on group members' concerns about justice. Two types of effects are hypothesized to exist: inclusionary and exclusionary. Inclusionary effects involve the relationship between groups and their members. Exclusionary effects involve the relationship of groups to nonmembers. Data from a recent study of citizen reactions to encounters with legal authority suggest that inclusionary effects do occur—for example, people of differing centrality to the group differ in their justice concerns. This finding supports both social exchange and group-value models of justice, both of which suggest that justice concerns are linked to group membership. The form of the inclusionary effects—which show that members of intermediate status care most about justice—supports the predictions of group-value theory. A theoretical analysis of exclusionary effects suggests that such effects may be complex, being influenced by factors such as the structure and values of the group in question.