JACQUELYNNE S. ECCLES is currently Professor of Psychology at the University of Colorado, Boulder, and Research Scientist at the Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan. She has authored or co-authored over 50 articles and book chapters on topics ranging from gender role socialization, teacher expectancies, and classroom influences on student motivation, to adolescent development in the family and school context. She is a member of the MacArthur Foundation Network on Successful Adolescent Development.
Gender Role Stereotypes, Expectancy Effects, and Parents' Socialization of Gender Differences
Article first published online: 14 APR 2010
1990 The Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues
Journal of Social Issues
Volume 46, Issue 2, pages 183–201, Summer 1990
How to Cite
Eccles, J. S., Jacobs, J. E. and Harold, R. D. (1990), Gender Role Stereotypes, Expectancy Effects, and Parents' Socialization of Gender Differences. Journal of Social Issues, 46: 183–201. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-4560.1990.tb01929.x
- Issue published online: 14 APR 2010
- Article first published online: 14 APR 2010
Gender segregation continues to exist in many activity and occupational domains. This article uses the expectancy effect perspective to analyze the role parents may play in influencing their children to engage in gender role stereotyped activities. It outlines the theoretical bases for such effects, and discusses how to distinguish between accuracy and perceptual bias in parents' gender role differentiated perceptions of their children's competencies and interests. Then it summarizes the results of a series of studies, which show that parents distort their perceptions of their own children in gender role stereotypic activities such as math and sports, that the child's gender affects parents' causal attributions for their children's performance in gender role stereotypic activities, and that these perceptual biases influence the children's own self-perceptions and activity choices. Finally, the article presents a theoretical model of how these processes may occur.