This article reviews findings from a longitudinal study of single-earner and dual-earner families with school-age children. We first summarize similarities and differences in the experiences of boys and girls and their mothers and fathers in terms of three ongoing daily family processes: (1) parental monitoring of children's everyday experiences, whereabouts, and companions; (2) parent-child involvement in joint activities; and (3) children's involvement in household chores. We then review findings linking these family processes and family context (single vs. dual earner) to boys' and girls' psychosocial functioning. These findings generally reveal different patterns of psychological adjustment, school achievement, conduct problems, and evaluations of parents as a function of the intersection of gender, family process, and family context. These themes are discussed in terms of the ecological perspective on human development.