Models of Conflict Management


  • Jeffrey Z. Rubin

    Corresponding author
    1. Tufts University
    Search for more papers by this author
    • 3

      JEFFREY Z. RUBIN is Professor of Psychology and Adjunct Professor of Diplomacy, Fletcher School, Tufts University. He is also Senior Fellow, Program on Negotiation at Harvard Law School. An active member of SPSSI, he served as president of the society in 1987–1988. Author of more than a dozen books on interpersonal and international conflict, Rubin's most recent publications include: Culture and Negotiation (with G. 0. Faure), Negotiation Theory and Practice (with J. W. Breslin), and Social Conflict: Escalation, Stalemate, and Settlement (with D. G. Pruitt and S. H. Kim).

Department of Psychology, Tufts University, 204 Paige Hall, Medford, MA 02155.


Conflict can arise in virtually any social setting, be it between or within individuals, groups, organizations, or nations. Such conflict can be managed in any of a number of possible ways. These include domination through physical or psychological means, capitulation, inaction, withdrawal, negotiation, or the intervention of a third party. This article explores the latter two approaches to conflict management, first examining two very different models—mutual gains and concession-convergence—that have emerged for the understanding of negotiation, and then turning to the roles and functions of outside intervenors.