In reviewing the articles in this collection, four models of electoral participation are presented. Resources, party mobilization, electoral competition, and civic virtues are each important in driving turnout. Yet recent findings attest to the unique contribution of personality psychology in making sense of citizens' preferences and voting. A congruency-efficacy model is presented to account for both political preference and political participation and, ultimately, for voting. A cross-national and comparative view is recommended to fully appreciate the complexities of engagement in the key democratic process of voting.