The Role of Implicit Negative Feedback in SLA: Models and Recasts in Japanese and Spanish



The role of implicit and explicit negative feedback in first (L1) and second (L2) language acquisition is contentious. The L2 studies to date, however, suggest that implicit negative feedback exists, is perceived by learners for what it is (i.e., noticed), and is used for development. As part of one of several continuing lines of research on this issue, two experiments were conducted to assess the relative utility of models and recasts in L2 Japanese and Spanish. Using a pretest, posttest, control group design, each study provided some evidence of the ability of adults to learn from implicit negative feedback, and, in one case, support for the notion that reactive implicit negative feedback (recasts) can be more effective than preemptive positive input (models) in achieving at least short-term improvements on a previously unknown L2 structure.