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Learner beliefs are an important individual difference in second language (L2) learning. Furthermore, an ongoing debate surrounds the role of grammar instruction and error correction in the L2 classroom. Therefore, this study investigated the beliefs of L2 learners regarding the controversial role of grammar instruction and error correction. A total of 754 L2 students at an American university completed a questionnaire consisting of 37 Likert-scale items and 4 open-ended prompts. The quantitative items were submitted to a factor analysis, which identified 6 underlying factors (efficacy of grammar, negative attitude toward error correction, priority of communication, importance of grammar, importance of grammatical accuracy, and negative attitude toward grammar instruction). These factors were then used to investigate differences in beliefs among learners studying different target languages. In addition, themes emerging from the qualitative data were identified. The results indicate that among learners studying English as a second language and those studying a foreign language, there were varied beliefs about grammar instruction and error correction.