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  • Heidi Byrnes,

  • Hiram H. Maxim,

  • John M. Norris

  • Note: Throughout the monograph we use “FL” and “L2” to refer to adult learning of a nonnative language. Of the two, “L2” is the more comprehensive term, as it can refer to language acquired in instructed and non-instructed settings at home and abroad. By comparison, we use “FL” to highlight that the language is being learned exclusively in an instructed setting, in this case in collegiate education in the United States.