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The cognitive profiles of children with Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF-1) have many similarities to those observed in learning disabilities in the general school population, as well as some distinct features. Approximately 30–65 percent of children with NF-1 have learning disabilities; most commonly, they have language and reading disabilities, along with motor, visuomotor, and visuospatial deficits. Similar to learning disabilities in the general population, approximately 50 percent of children with NF-1 have Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). In this article, the genetic and physical characteristics, the diagnostic criteria of NF-1, and the cognitive profile of children with NF-1 (including relationships between neurological abnormalities and cognition) are reviewed. Additionally, the types of educational interventions that would be indicated for children with NF-1 are discussed.