A Diagnostic Teaching Intervention for Classroom Teachers: Helping Struggling Readers in Early Elementary School


Requests for reprints should be sent to Lynne Vernon-Feagans, The William C. Friday Distinguished Professor, 301K Peabody Hall #3500, The University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC27599. Electronic enquiries should be sent to lynnevf@email.unc.edu.


With the advent of “Response to Intervention” there has been emphasis on preventing reading disabilities. This study examined the effectiveness of a classroom teacher Tier II intervention for struggling readers in kindergarten and first grade called the Targeted Reading Intervention. Three rural schools were randomly assigned to experimental and control conditions, with 8 experimental and 12 control classrooms. Five struggling and five non-struggling readers were randomly selected from each classroom. With the support of biweekly coaching, experimental teachers instructed struggling readers in one-on-one sessions in the classroom. Intent-to-treat analyses revealed significant kindergarten gains for initial word identification but no significant gains in first grade. Discussion focuses on the use of classroom teachers to prevent reading disabilities.