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Teachers ticked one of five boxes to indicate the twins' level of attainment in terms of the TA scores; the criteria are listed below:

KEY STAGE 1

  1. Top of page
  2. KEY STAGE 1
  3. KEY STAGE 2

Speaking and Listening

W. Not yet functioning at Level 1.

1. Pupils talk about matters of immediate interest. They listen to others and usually respond appropriately. They convey simple meanings to a range of listeners, speaking audibly, and begin to extend their ideas or accounts by providing some detail.

2. Pupils begin to show confidence in talking and listening, particularly where the topics interest them. On occasions, they show awareness of the needs of the listener by including relevant detail. In developing and explaining their ideas they speak clearly and use a growing vocabulary. They usually listen carefully and respond with increasing appropriateness to what others say. They are beginning to be aware that in some situations a more formal vocabulary and tone of voice are used.

3. Pupils talk and listen confidently in different contexts, exploring and communicating ideas. In discussion, they show understanding of the main points. Through relevant comments and questions, they show they have listened carefully. They begin to adapt what they say to the needs of the listener, varying the use of vocabulary and the level of detail. They are beginning to be aware of Standard English and when it is used.

4+. Speaking and listening are substantially more advanced than most pupils at Level 3.

Reading

W. Not yet functioning at Level 1.

1. Pupils recognize familiar words in simple texts. They use their knowledge of letters and sound–symbol relationships in order to read words and to establish meaning when reading aloud. In these activities they sometimes require support. They express their response to poems, stories and nonfiction by identifying aspects they like.

2. Pupils' reading of simple texts shows understanding and is generally accurate. They express opinions about major events or ideas in stories, poems, and nonfiction. They use more than one strategy, such as phonic, graphic, syntactic, and contextual, in reading unfamiliar words and establishing meaning.

3. Pupils read a range of texts fluently and accurately. They read independently, using strategies appropriately to establish meaning. In responding to fiction and nonfiction they show understanding of the main points and express preferences. They use their knowledge of the alphabet to locate books and find information.

4+. Reading is substantially more advanced than most pupils at Level 3.

Writing

W. Not yet functioning at Level 1.

1. Pupils' writing communicates meaning through simple words and phrases. In their reading or their writing, pupils begin to show awareness of how full stops are used. Letters are usually clearly shaped and correctly orientated.

2. Pupils' writing communicates meaning in both narrative and nonnarrative forms, using appropriate and interesting vocabulary, and showing some awareness of the reader. Ideas are developed in a sequence of sentences, sometimes demarcated by capital letters and full stops. Simple, monosyllabic words are usually spelt correctly, and where there are inaccuracies the alternative is phonetically plausible. In handwriting, letters are accurately formed and consistent in size.

3. Pupils' writing is often organized, imaginative, and clear. The main features of different forms of writing are used appropriately, beginning to be adapted to different readers. Sequences of sentences extend ideas logically and words are chosen for variety and interest. The basic grammatical structure of sentences is usually correct. Spelling is usually accurate, including that of common, polysyllabic words. Punctuation to mark sentences—full stops, capital letters, and questions marks—is used accurately. Handwriting is joined and legible.

4+. Writing is substantially more advanced than most pupils at Level 3.

KEY STAGE 2

  1. Top of page
  2. KEY STAGE 1
  3. KEY STAGE 2

Speaking and Listening

1. Not yet functioning at Level 2.

2. Pupils begin to show confidence in talking and listening, particularly where the topics interest them. On occasions, they show awareness of the needs of the listener by including relevant detail. In developing and explaining their ideas they speak clearly and use a growing vocabulary. They usually listen carefully and respond with increasing appropriateness to what others say. They are beginning to be aware that in some situations a more formal vocabulary and tone of voice are used.

3. Pupils talk and listen confidently in different contexts, exploring and communicating ideas. In discussion, they show understanding of the main points. Through relevant comments and questions, they show they have listened carefully they begin to adapt what they say to the needs of the listener, varying the use of vocabulary and the level of detail. They are beginning to be aware of Standard English and when it is used.

4. Pupils talk and listen with confidence in an increasing range of contexts. Their talk is adapted to the purpose: developing ideas thoughtfully, describing events, and conveying their opinions clearly. In discussion, they listen carefully, making contributions and asking questions that are responsive to others' ideas and views. They use appropriately some of the features of Standard English vocabulary and grammar.

5. Speaking and listening are substantially more advanced than most pupils at Level 4.

Reading

1. Not yet functioning at Level 2.

2. Pupil's reading of simple texts shows understanding and is generally accurate. They express opinions about major evens or ideas in stories, poems, and nonfiction. They use more than one strategy, such as phonic, graphic, syntactic, and contextual, in reading unfamiliar words and establishing meaning.

3. Pupils read a range of texts fluently and accurately. They read independently, using strategies appropriately to establish meaning. In responding to fiction and nonfiction they show understanding of the main points and express preferences. They use their knowledge of the alphabet to locate books and find information.

4. In responding to a range of texts, pupils show understanding of significant ideas, themes, events, and characters, beginning to use inference and deduction. They refer to the text when explaining their views. They locate and use ideas and information.

5. Reading is substantially more advanced than most pupils at Level 4.

Writing

1. Not yet functioning at Level 2.

2. Pupils' writing communicates meaning in both narrative and nonnarrative forms, using appropriate and interesting vocabulary, and showing some awareness of the reader. Ideas are developed in a sequence of sentences, sometimes demarcated by capital letters and full stops. Simple words are usually spelt correctly, and where there are inaccuracies the alternative is phonetically plausible. In handwriting, letters are accurately formed and consistent in size.

3. Pupils' writing is often organized, imaginative, and clear. The main features of different forms of writing are used appropriately, beginning to be adapted to different readers. Sequences of sentences extend ideas logically and words are chosen for variety and interest. The basic grammatical structure of sentences is usually correct. Spelling is usually accurate, including that of common, polysyllabic words. Punctuation to mark sentences—full stops, capital letters, and questions marks—is used accurately. Handwriting is joined and legible.

4. Pupils' writing in a range of forms is lively and thoughtful. Ideas are often sustained and developed in interesting ways and organized appropriately for the purpose and the reader. Vocabulary choices are often adventurous and words are used for effect. Pupils are beginning to use grammatically complex sentences, extending meaning. Spelling, including that of polysyllabic words that conform to regular patterns, is generally accurate. Full stop, capital letters, and questions marks are used correctly, and pupils are beginning to use punctuation within the sentence. Handwriting style is fluent, joined, and legible.

5. Writing is substantially more advanced than most pupils at Level 4.