This chapter first presents a review of research on the development of adopted children, focusing on meta-analytic evidence and highlighting comparisons between adopted children with and without histories of early adversity. Some methodological issues arising from this literature are considered as well. Second, 7 longitudinal studies of adopted children's development are described, and the convergence of findings across the longitudinal studies and with the cross-sectionally based meta-analytic evidence is discussed. Third, the role of the adoptive family in supporting adopted children's development is explored.