1. References
  2. Statutes Cited
  • Albiston, Catherine (2003) “The Rule of Law and the Litigation Process: The Paradox of Losing by Winning,” in H. M.Kritzer & S.Silbey, eds., In Litigation: Do the Haves Still Come Out Ahead? Stanford, CA: Stanford Univ. Press.
  • Albiston, Catherine (2005) “Bargaining in the Shadow of Institutions: Competing Discourses and Social Change in the Workplace Mobilization of Civil Rights,” 39 Law & Society Rev. 1150.
  • Bisom-Rapp, Susan (1999) “Bulletproofing the Workplace,” 26 Florida State University Law Rev. 9591049.
  • Blumrosen, Alfred (1993) Modern Law: The Law Transmission System and Equal Employment Opportunity. Madison: Univ. of Wisconsin Press.
  • Bumiller, Kristin (1988) The Civil Rights Society. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press.
  • Burstein, Paul (1989) “Attacking Sex Discrimination in the Labor Market: A Study in Law and Politics,” 67 Social Forces 64165.
  • Burstein, Paul, & Kathleen Monaghan (1986) “Equal Employment Opportunity and the Mobilization of Law,” 20 Law & Society Rev. 35588.
  • Dobbin, Frank, et al. (1993) “Equal Opportunity Law and the Construction of Internal Labor Markets,” 99 American J. of Sociology 396427.
  • Donohue, John J., & Peter Siegelman (1991) “The Changing Nature of Employment Discrimination Litigation,” 43 Stanford Law Rev. 9831033.
  • Donohue, John J., & Peter Siegelman (2005) “The Evolution of Employment Discrimination Law in the 1990s: A Preliminary Empirical Investigation,” in L. B.Nielson & R. L.Nelson, eds., Handbook of Employment Discrimination Research: Rights and Realities. New York: Springer Press.
  • Edelman, Lauren B. (1990) “Legal Environments and Organizational Governance: The Expansion of Due Process in the American Workplace,” 95 American J. of Sociology 140140.
  • Edelman, Lauren B. (1992) “Legal Ambiguity and Symbolic Structures: Organizational Mediation of Civil Rights Law,” 97 American J. of Sociology 153176.
  • Edelman, Lauren B. (2005) “Law at Work: The Endogeneous Construction of Civil Rights,” in L. B.Nielson & R. L.Nelson, eds., Handbook of Employment Discrimination Research: Rights and Realities. New York: Springer Press.
  • Edelman, Lauren B., & Stephen M. Petterson (1999) “Symbols and Substance in Organizational Response to Civil Rights Law,” 17 Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 10735.
  • Edelman, Lauren B., & Mark C. Suchman (1999) “When the Haves Hold Court: Speculations on the Organizational Internalization of the Law,” 33 Law & Society Rev. 94191.
  • Edelman, Lauren B., et al. (1999) “The Endogeneity of Legal Regulation: Grievance Procedures as Rational Myth,” 105 American J. of Sociology 40654.
  • Galanter, Marc (1974) “Why the ‘Haves’ Come Out Ahead: Speculation on the Limits of Legal Change,” 9 Law & Society Rev. 95160.
  • Graham, Hugh D. (1990) The Civil Rights Era: Origins and Developments of National Policy. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.
  • Heinz, John P., et al. (1998) “The Changing Character of Lawyer's Work: Chicago in 1975 and 1995,” 32 Law & Society Rev. 75175.
  • Hirsh, C. Elizabeth, & Sabino Kornrich (2008) “The Context of Discrimination: Workplace Conditions, Institutional Environments, and Sex and Race Discrimination Charges,” 113 American J. of Sociology 1394432.
  • Kalev, Alexandra, et al. (2006) “Best Practices or Best Guesses? Diversity Management and the Remediation of Inequality,” 71 American Sociological Rev. 589917.
  • Lancaster, Ryon, et al. (2006) “Social Structure and Formal Law: Social Attributes and the Outcomes of Employment Discrimination Cases.” Presented at the American Sociological Association, Montreal, Quebec (August).
  • Lillard, Margaret (2005) “NC Department Deemed Racially Hostile,” Yahoo News, (accessed 18 May 2005).
  • Long, J. Scott (1997) Regression Models for Categorical and Limited Dependent Variables. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  • Marshall, Anna-Marie (2005) “Idle Rights: Employees' Rights Consciousness and the Construction of Sexual Harassment Policies,” 39 Law & Society Rev. 83123.
  • Massey, Douglas S., & Nancy A. Denton (1988) “The Dimensions of Residential Segregation,” 67 Social Forces 281315.
  • Nielson, Laura Beth, & Robert L. Nelson (2005) “Scaling the Pyramid: A Sociolegal Model of Employment Discrimination Litigation,” in L. B.Nielson & R. L.Nelson, eds., Handbook of Employment Discrimination Research: Rights and Realities. New York: Springer Press.
  • Nelson, Robert L., & William P. Bridges (1999) Legalizing Gender Inequality: Courts, Markets, and Unequal Pay for Women in America. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.
  • Robinson, Corre L., et al. (2005) “Studying Race or Ethnic and Sex Segregation at the Establishment Level: Methodological Issues and Substantive Opportunities Using EEO-1 Reports,” 32 Work and Occupations 538.
  • Rosenberg, Gerald N. (1991) The Hollow Hope: Can Courts Bring About Social Change? Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.
  • Schultz, Vicki (1990) “Telling Stories about Women and Work: Judicial Interpretations of Sex Segregation in the Workplace in Title VII Cases Raising the ‘Lack of Interest’ Argument,” 103 Harvard Law Rev. 1750843.
  • Sturm, Susan (2001) “Second Generation Employment Discrimination: A Structural Approach,” 101 Columbia Law Rev. 458568.
  • Sutton, John R., & Frank Dobbin (1996) “Two Faces of Governance: Responses to Legal Uncertainty in U.S. Firms, 1955–1985,” 61 American Sociological Rev. 794811.
  • U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (2004) “Charge and Litigation Statistics from the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, FY 1992 through 2003,” (accessed 18 Dec. 2004).
  • U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (2005) “Home Depot to Pay $5.5 Million to Resolve Class Discrimination Lawsuit in Colorado,” (accessed 24 May 2005).
  • U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (2007) “Definition of Terms,” (accessed 1 March 2007).
  • Wakefield, Sara, & Christopher Uggen (2004) “The Declining Significance of Race in Federal Civil Rights Law,” 74 Sociological Inquiry 12857.
  • Westin, Alan F., & Alfred G. Feliu (1988) Resolving Employment Disputes without Litigation. Washington, DC: Bureau of National Affairs.
  • Wheeler, Stanton, et al. (1987) “Do the Haves Come Out Ahead? Winning and Losing in State Supreme Courts, 1870–1970,” 21 Law & Society Rev. 40345.

Statutes Cited

  1. References
  2. Statutes Cited
  • Civil Rights Act of 1964, 42 U.S.C. 2000e to 2000e-17.
  • Equal Pay Act of 1963, 29 U.S.C. 206(d).
  • Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978, 42 U.S.C. 2000e(k).