Research was partly funded by NSF grant SES-0519459. We thank Mark Schneider and Mark Lubell for use of data from NSF grant SBR97295905 and Tom Snijders and Christian Steglich for suggestions at several stages of the research. Replication materials are available at http://www.u.arizona.edu/~berardo/Research.htm.
Self-Organizing Policy Networks: Risk, Partner Selection, and Cooperation in Estuaries
Article first published online: 21 JUN 2010
©2010, Midwest Political Science Association
American Journal of Political Science
Volume 54, Issue 3, pages 632–649, July 2010
How to Cite
Berardo, R. and Scholz, J. T. (2010), Self-Organizing Policy Networks: Risk, Partner Selection, and Cooperation in Estuaries. American Journal of Political Science, 54: 632–649. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-5907.2010.00451.x
- Issue published online: 21 JUN 2010
- Article first published online: 21 JUN 2010
Policy actors seek network contacts to improve individual payoffs in the institutional collective action dilemmas endemic to fragmented policy arenas. The risk hypothesis argues that actors seek bridging relationships (well-connected, popular partners that maximize their access to information) when cooperation involves low risks, but seek bonding relationships (transitive, reciprocal relationships that maximize credibility) when risks of defection increase. We test this hypothesis in newly developing policy arenas expected to favor relationships that resolve low-risk dilemmas. A stochastic actor-based model for network evolution estimated with survey data from 1999 and 2001 in 10 U.S. estuaries finds that actors do tend to select popular actors as partners, which presumably creates a centralized bridging structure capable of efficient information transmission for coordinating policies even without any government mandate. Actors also seek reciprocal bonding relationships supportive of small joint projects and quickly learn whether or not to trust their partners.