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Table A1: Effect of Incumbency: Descriptive Statistics

Table A2: Effect of Radio Control: Descriptive Statistics

Table A3: Alternative Forcing Variable Results: Vote Margin as a Share of Valid Votes (see endnote 11). Balance Statistics for Four Different Specifications. Heteroskedasticity-consistent standard errors in parentheses.

Table A4: Alternative Forcing Variable Results: Vote Margin as a Share of Valid Votes (see endnote 11). Does incumbency affect the likelihood of application approval or rejection? The estimated local average treatment effect of winning office on having a community radio license application approved or rejected, under four different specifications. Standard errors are heteroskedasticity-consistent.

Table A5: Alternative Forcing Variable Results: Inflated Vote Margin (see endnote 11). Balance Statistics for Four Different Specifications. Heteroskedasticityconsistent standard errors in parentheses.

Table A6: Alternative Forcing Variable Results: Inflated Vote Margin (see endnote 11). Does incumbency affect the likelihood of application approval or rejection? The estimated local average treatment effect of winning office on having a community radio license application approved or rejected, under four different specifications. Standard errors are heteroskedasticity-consistent.

Table A7: Heterogeneity by Population in the Effect of Incumbency on Application Approval and Rejection, using Alternative Forcing Variable (Vote Margin as a Share of Valid Votes). The estimated local average treatment effect of winning office on having a community radio license application approved or rejected, under four different specifications, with sample split by median population of municipalities with community radio stations (14,149). Standard errors are heteroskedasticity-consistent.

Table A8: Heterogeneity by Population in the Effect of Incumbency on Application Approval and Rejection. The estimated local average treatment effect of winning office on having a community radio license application approved or rejected, under four different specifications, with sample split by median population of municipalities with community radio stations (14,149). Standard errors are heteroskedasticity-consistent.

Table A9: Matching with Covariate Adjustment and Two Alternate Control Groups. ATT estimates for the effect of obtaining a community radio license on electoral outcomes. Covariate adjustment uses the log of the value of the candidate?s assets.

Table A10: Balance Statistics before and after matching using the first alternate control group. Standardized difference is the mean difference divided by the standard deviation of the treatment units, multiplied by 100. p-values are from t-tests (two-sample before matching, paired after matching) and, for non-binary variables, bootstrapped Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests.

Table A11: Balance Statistics before and after matching using the second alternate control group. Standardized difference is the mean difference divided by the standard deviation of the treatment units, multiplied by 100. p-values are from t-tests (two-sample before matching, paired after matching) and, for non-binary variables, bootstrapped Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests.

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