I. Overview of the Data

Table S1: Summary of Data

II. Extremeness of Parties Compared to Party Supporters

Table S2: The Extremeness from Party Supporters

III. Alternative Analysis for the Effect of Extremeness

Table S3: Results with the “Extremeness” Variable

IV. Alternative Operationalizations of “In Government” Status

Table S4: Alternative Measures of Government

V. Alternative Data:

a) CSES Data Results

Table S5a: Results with the CSES Data

b) Comparative Manifesto Project Data Results

Table S5b: The Party Positions Measured Using the CMP Positions

VI. Individual Country Effects

Table S6: Results with Each Country Omitted

VII. Distribution of Voter Preferences

Table S7: Results Limited to the Countries with Single-Peaked Preferences

VIII. Types of Governments and Parties across Countries

Table S8: Distribution of Types of Governments and Parties across Countries

IX. The Full Models of Table 2

Table S9a: The Effects of Minority and Coalition Governments

Table S9b: The Effects of Single Party-Majority Governments, Niche Party Status, and Ever in Government Status

X. The Mediating Effects of Bicameralism

Table S10: The Effects of Bicameralism

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