Graeme Blair is Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Politics, Princeton University, 130 Corwin Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544 (email@example.com, http://www.princeton.edu/~gblair). C. Christine Fair is Assistant Professor, Center for Peace and Security Studies, Georgetown University, Edward A. Walsh School of Foreign Service, 3600 N. Street, NW, Washington, DC 20007 (firstname.lastname@example.org, http://www.christinefair.net). Neil Malhotra is Associate Professor, Graduate School of Business, Stanford University, 655 Knight Way, Stanford, CA 94305 (email@example.com, http://www.stanford.edu/~neilm). Jacob N. Shapiro is Assistant Professor of Politics and International Affairs and Co-Director of the Empirical Studies of Conflict Project, Department of Politics and Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Princeton University, Robertson Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544 (firstname.lastname@example.org, http://www.princeton.edu/~jns). We thank our partners at Socio-Economic Development Consultants (SEDCO) for their diligent work administering a complex survey in challenging circumstances. The editor, our six anonymous reviewers, Scott Ashworth, Rashad Bokhari, Ethan Bueno de Mesquita, Ali Cheema, James Fearon, Amaney Jamal, Asim Khwaja, Roger Myerson, Farooq Naseer, and Mosharraf Zaidi provided outstanding feedback. Seminar participants at UC Berkeley, CISAC, Georgetown, the Harris School, Harvard, Penn, Princeton, Stanford, and the University of Ottawa honed the article with a number of insightful comments. Josh Borkowski, Zach Romanow, and Peter Schram provided excellent research assistance at different points. Basharat Saeed led the coding team that developed the violence data. This material is based upon work supported by the International Growth Center (IGC), the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR) under Award No. FA9550-09-1-0314, and the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) under awards 2007-ST-061-000001 and 2010-ST-061-RE0001 through the National Center for Risk and Economic Analysis of Terrorism Events. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of any institution. Replication materials can be found at http://hdl.handle.net/1902.1/17042, and the Supporting Information is posted on the AJPS Web site.