Progress in New Public Management research requires careful comparison of different organizational approaches to public tasks, preferably within a single political and institutional setting. This paper presents a study of three approaches to reemployment services, a recent development in the Netherlands. How do bureaucratic, networked, and market-based forms of organization function with regard to the new public aim of second-tier reemployment in the Netherlands? It appears that there is no simple dependence between performance and instrumental or organizational features. Even in the setting of a single welfare state, intricate interactions exist between performance, stakeholder interests, and institutional conditions. Given the importance of these interactions, New Public Management research would benefit by shifting focus away from organizational performance toward a “politics of institutional structuring.”