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Japan is the only country to suffer twice from the terrible consequences of atomic bombs. Hiroshima and Nagasaki are renowned internationally for experiencing the first twin devastating nuclear attacks in history. Unfortunately, Japan has witnessed several other serious nuclear-related disasters in recent years. The much-publicized Fukushima disaster in 2011 is one of them. How could such a serious accident occur in a modern, highly sensitive, nuclear-conscious country?, The answer to that central question is complex, involving not only political and administrative issues but also technical and human dimensions. In retrospect, both government officials and private industry were far too lax with the operation and development of nuclear policies and facilities. The Fukushima debacle was the result of a lack of rigorous management and control of nuclear issues by both public authorities and private industry.