We owe a debt to H. George Frederickson for advancing the scholarly and practitioner dialogue on the role of citizens and the value of citizenship in public administration. Frederickson's contributions began in the late 1960s and early 1970s on citizenship in urban governance, advanced through the development of New Public Administration values, and, more recently, extended through the formulation of ideas regarding the restoration of civism and the promotion of the public as citizen. This article describes the general philosophy of Frederickson's writings and suggests three challenges to this philosophy: (1) the harmful consequences of participation, (2) uncertain constitutional foundations, and (3) equally legitimate conceptions of the public beyond that of the citizen. The authors ask where the scholarly field should go next and suggest fruitful areas for continued theoretical and empirical research categorized by the notions of civis (citizen), civitas (citizenship), and civilitas (the art of government).