Spain: Corruption, Weak Institutionalization, Unfinished Democratization


  • Francisco Cardona joined the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's SIGMA Program in 1998 as senior advisor on civil service reform, administrative law, and anticorruption. Previously, he had been a civil servant in Spain with responsibilities for human resource management in a provincial administration, a municipal city manager, and a teacher of public management. He holds a degree in law and several diplomas in public management–related disciplines. He spent one year in Lithuania assisting with the design of the new civil service system after the collapse of the Soviet Union. E-mail:

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