*Direct correspondence to Jason A. Winfree, 1402 Washington Heights #2114, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2013 〈email@example.com〉. Dr. Winfree will share all data and coding information with those wishing to replicate the study. The authors thank, without implicating, Charles Brown, Rodney Fort, Erin Kassa, and the Numeric and Spatial Data specialists at the University of Michigan for their significant contribution.
Discrimination and Demand: The Effect of International Players on Attendance in Major League Baseball*
Version of Record online: 11 JAN 2010
© 2010 by the Southwestern Social Science Association
Social Science Quarterly
Volume 91, Issue 1, pages 117–128, March 2010
How to Cite
Tainsky, S. and Winfree, J. A. (2010), Discrimination and Demand: The Effect of International Players on Attendance in Major League Baseball. Social Science Quarterly, 91: 117–128. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-6237.2010.00684.x
- Issue online: 11 JAN 2010
- Version of Record online: 11 JAN 2010
Objectives. This article tests the presence of demand-driven discrimination attributable to foreign-born players in Major League Baseball (MLB). We quantify the change in demand at MLB games given the number of foreign players on an MLB team. We further measure how matching market population demographics and team demographics affects demand.
Methods. We use regression analysis to estimate the effect on attendance of a change in the number of foreign players on a team. We then use these estimates to find the change in revenue for the team.
Results. The results show that the effect evolves over time. At the outset of the sample (1985), the net effect of an additional foreign-born player was a decrease in ticket demand. This effect diminished steadily until 1992, when the net effect became positive, peaking in 2000, and then slightly decreasing until the end of the sample (2005). The matching of team and population demographics was not found to be significant.
Conclusions. We discuss the implications of this result on league policy decisions.