Objective. This article tests if welfare generosity is related to abortion rates, allowing effects to vary by program type and abortion policy context.

Methods. Measuring welfare generosity with respect to cash assistance, family caps, Medicaid, child care and family leave policies, I estimate fixed effects models of abortion rates in 48 U.S. states over 1987–2000.

Results. More expansive family leave laws are associated with lower abortion rates. In states that do not enforce any of three key abortion policies, increased Medicaid eligibility and child care spending predict higher abortion rates. For Medicaid, this relationship diminishes and reverses itself as states add abortion regulations.

Conclusion. Welfare state expansions may help reduce abortion, but programs' effects are not unambiguously pro-natalist. Estimated impacts of welfare generosity on abortion rates vary by program, and some with abortion policy context.