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The Cross-Section of Expected Stock Returns

Authors

  • EUGENE F. FAMA,

  • KENNETH R. FRENCH

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    • Graduate School of Business, University of Chicago, 1101 East 58th Street, Chicago, IL 60637. We acknowledge the helpful comments of David Booth, Nai-fu Chen, George Constantinides, Wayne Ferson, Edward George, Campbell Harvey, Josef Lakonishok, Rex Sinquefield, René Stulz, Mark Zmijeweski, and an anonymous referee. This research is supported by the National Science Foundation (Fama) and the Center for Research in Security Prices (French).

ABSTRACT

Two easily measured variables, size and book-to-market equity, combine to capture the cross-sectional variation in average stock returns associated with market β, size, leverage, book-to-market equity, and earnings-price ratios. Moreover, when the tests allow for variation in β that is unrelated to size, the relation between market β and average return is flat, even when β is the only explanatory variable.

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