Portfolio Inefficiency and the Cross-section of Expected Returns




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    • Kandel is from the Recanati Graduate School of Business Administration, Tel-Aviv University, and the Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania. Stambaugh is from the Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania. The authors are grateful for comments by Yakov Amihud, Eugene Fama, Gur Huberman, Ravi Jagannathan, Craig MacKinlay, Richard Roll, René Stulz, Simon Wheatley, an anonymous referee, and workshop participants at Tel-Aviv University, Temple University, and the University of Pennsylvania.


The Capital Asset Pricing Model implies that (i) the market portfolio is efficient and (ii) expected returns are linearly related to betas. Many do not view these implications as separate, since either implies the other, but we demonstrate that either can hold nearly perfectly while the other fails grossly. If the index portfolio is inefficient, then the coefficients and R2 from an ordinary least squares regression of expected returns on betas can equal essentially any values and bear no relation to the index portfolio's mean-variance location. That location does determine the outcome of a mean-beta regression fitted by generalized least squares.