• Alesina, Alberto, 1987, Macroeconomic policy in a two-party system as a repeated game, Quarterly Journal of Economics 102, 651678.
  • Alesina, Alberto, Gerald D. Cohen, and Nouriel Roubini, 1992, Macroeconomic policy and elections in OECD democracies, Economics and Politics 5, 130.
  • Alesina, Alberto, Gerald D. Cohen, and Nouriel Roubini, 1999, Political Cycles and the Macroeconomy (MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts).
  • Alesina, Alberto, and Roberto Perotti, 1996, Income distribution, political instability, and investment, European Economic Review 40, 12031228.
  • Barro, Robert J.,1991, Economic growth in a cross section of countries, Quarterly Journal of Economics 106, 407443.
  • Beck, Thorsten, George Clarke, Alberto Groff, and Philip Keefer, 2004, New tools and new tests in comparative political economy: The Database of Political Institutions, World Bank Policy Research Paper No. 2283.
  • Bernanke, Ben S.,1983, Irreversibility, uncertainty, and cyclical investment, Quarterly Journal of Economics 98, 85106.
  • Bernhard, William, and David Leblang, 2006, Democratic Processes and Financial Markets: Pricing Politics (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge United Kingdom.
  • Bertrand, Marianne, Francis Kramarz, Antoinette Schoar and David Thesmar, 2006, Politicians, firms and the political business cycle: Evidence from France, Working Paper, University of Chicago.
  • Bialkowski, Jedrzej, Katrin Gottschalk, and Tomasz Piotr Wisniewski, 2008, Stock market volatility around national elections, Journal of Banking and Finance 32, 19411953.
  • Bloom, Nicholas, Stephen Bond, and John Van Reenen, 2007, Uncertainty and investment dynamics, Review of Economic Studies 74, 391415.
    Direct Link:
  • Bloom, Nicholas, Max Floetotto, and Nir Jaimovich, 2009, Really uncertain business cycles, Working paper, Stanford University .
  • Boutchkova, Maria, Hitesh Doshi, Art Durnev, and Alexander Molchanov, 2011, Precarious politics and return volatility, Review of Financial Studies , forthcoming.
  • Chen, Yu-Fu, and Michael Funke, 2003, Option value, policy uncertainty, and the foreign direct investment decision, Hamburg Institute of International Economics discussion paper.
  • Colak, Gonul, and Toni M. Whited, 2007, Spin-offs, divestitures, and conglomerate investment, Review of Financial Studies 20, 557595.
  • Cole, Shawn, 2009, Fixing market failures or fixing elections? Elections, banks, and agricultural lending in India, American Economic Journal: Applied Economics 1, 219250.
  • Cukierman, Alex, Steven B. Webb, and Bilin Neypati, 1992, Measuring the independence of central banks and its effect on policy outcomes, The World Bank Economic Review 6, 353398.
  • Dinc, Serdar, 2005, Politicians and banks: Political influences on government-owned banks in emerging countries, Journal of Financial Economics 77, 453479.
  • Drazen, Allan, 2000, The political business cycle after 25 years, NBER Macroeconomics Annual 15, 75117.
  • Eberly, Janice, Sergio Rebelo, and Nicolas Vincent, 2009, Investment and value: A neoclassical benchmark, NBER working paper #13866.
  • Erickson, Timothy, and Toni M. Whited, 2005, Proxy-quality thresholds: Theory and applications, Financial Research Letters 2, 131151.
  • Faccio, Mara, 2006, Politically connected firms, American Economic Review 96, 369386.
  • Faccio, Mara, Ronald Masulis, and John McConnell, 2006, Political connections and corporate bailouts, Journal of Finance 61, 25972635.
  • Fair, Ray C.1996, Econometrics and presidential elections, Journal of Economic Perspectives 10, 89102.
  • Hennessy, Christopher, Amnon Levy, and Toni M. Whited, 2007, Testing Q theory with financing frictions, Journal of Financial Economics 83, 691717.
  • Herron, Michael C., James Lavin, Donald Cram, and Jay Silver, 1999, Measurement of political effects in the United States economy: A study of the 1992 presidential election, Economics and Politics 11, 5181.
    Direct Link:
  • Ingersoll, Jonathan E., and Stephen A. Ross, 1992, Waiting to invest: Investment and uncertainty, Journal of Business 65, 129.
  • Ito, Takatoshi, 1990, The timing of elections and political business cycles in Japan, Journal of Asian Economics 1, 135156.
  • Keefer, Philip, 2007, Database of political institutions: Changes and variable definitions, Development Research Group, The World Bank.
  • La Porta, Rafael, Florencio Lopez-de Silanes, and Andrei Shleifer, 1999, Corporate ownership around the world, Journal of Finance 54, 471517.
  • La Porta, Rafael, Florencio Lopez-de Silanes, Andrei Shleifer, and Robert W. Vishny, 1997, Legal determinants of external finance, Journal of Finance 52, 11311150.
  • La Porta, Rafael, Florencio Lopez-de Silanes, Andrei Shleifer, and Robert W. Vishny, 1998, Law and finance, Journal of Political Economy 106, 11131155.
  • Mauro, Paolo, 1995, Corruption and growth, Quarterly Journal of Economics 110, 681712.
  • McDonald, Robert, and Daniel Siegel, 1986, The value of waiting to invest, Quarterly Journal of Economics 101, 707728.
  • Mei, Jianping, and Limin Guo, 2004, Political uncertainty, financial crisis and market volatility, European Financial Management 10, 639657.
  • Nordhaus, W.1975, The political business cycle, Review of Economic Studies 42, 169190.
  • Opler, Tim, Lee Pinkowitz, René Stulz, and Rohan Williamson, 1999, The determinants and implications of corporate cash holdings, Journal of Financial Economics 52, 346.
  • Ozbas, Oguzhan, and David S. Scharfstein, 2010, Evidence on the dark side of internal capital markets, Review of Financial Studies 23, 581599.
  • Petersen, Mitchell A., 2009, Estimating standard errors in finance panel data sets: Comparing approaches, Review of Financial Studies 22, 435480.
  • Pindyck, Robert, and Andres Solimano, 1993, Economic instability and aggregate investment, NBER Macroeconomics Annual 8, 259303.
  • Polillo, Simone, and Mauro F. Guillen, 2005, Globalization pressures and the state: The worldwide spread of central bank independence, American Journal of Sociology 110, 17641802.
  • Rodrik, Dani, 1991, Policy uncertainty and private investment in developing countries, Journal of Development Economics 36, 229242.
  • Stepan, Alfred, and Cindy Skach, 1993, Constitutional frameworks and democratic consolidation: Parliamentarianism versus presidentialism, World Politics 46, 122.