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Organizational culture is an important strategic resource that family firms can use to gain a competitive advantage. Drawing upon the resource-based view (RBV) of the firm, this study examines the association between four dimensions of organizational culture in family vs. non-family businesses and entrepreneurship. Using data from 536 U.S. manufacturing companies, the results show a nonlinear association between the cultural dimension of individualism and entrepreneurship. Further, there are positive linear relationships between entrepreneurship and an external orientation, an organizational cultural orientation toward decentralization, and a long- versus short-term orientation. With the exception of an external orientation, each of these dimensions is significantly more influential upon entrepreneurship in family firms when compared with non-family firms.