A growing number of studies on entrepreneurial motivation, intentions, and behavior include entrepreneurial self-efficacy (ESE) as an explanatory variable. While there is broad consensus among researchers on the importance of including ESE in an intentionality model, there remain inconsistencies in the definition, dimensionality, and measurement of ESE. This study takes an important step toward refinement and standardization of ESE measurement. Within a new venture creation process framework, a multi-dimensional ESE instrument is developed and tested on a diverse sample that includes nascent entrepreneurs. Implications for entrepreneurship theory and entrepreneurship education are discussed.