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Africa and the Middle East

Between Democracy and Terror: The Sierra Leone Civil War. Edited by Ibrahim Abdullah. (Dakar, Senegal: Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa, 2004. Pp. v, 263. $29.95.) Harvard University Reviewed by Michael Jackson

The Turks in World History. By Carter Vaughan Findley. (New York, N.Y.: Oxford University Press, 2005. Pp. ix, 300. $19.95.) University of Wisconsin—Madison Reviewed by Kemal Karpat

The Persians. By Gene R. Garthwaite. (Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2005. Pp. xvii, 311. $59.95.) Columbia University Reviewed by Richard W. Bulliet

Understanding Burckhardt: Principles and Contexts. Jacob Burckhardt's Social and Political Thought. By Richard Sigurdson. (Toronto, Canada: University of Toronto Press, 2004. Pp. xii, 279. $55.00.) Princeton University Reviewed by Lionel Gossman

The Modern Middle East: A Political History since the First World War. By Mehran Kamrava. (Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press, 2005. Pp. xiii, 497. $24.95.) University of Minnesota Reviewed by Caesar E. Farah

Maize and Grace: Africa's Encounter with a New World Crop, 1500–2000. By James C. McCann. (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2005. Pp. xiii, 289. $27.95.) Colby College Reviewed by James L. A. Webb Jr.

The Americas

The First Waco Horror. By Patricia Bernstein. (College Station, Tex.: Texas A&M University Press, 2004. Pp. xii, 252. $29.50.) Evergreen State College Reviewed by Michael J. Pfeifer

After the Siege: A Social History of Boston, 1775–1800. By Jacqueline Barbara Carr. (Boston, Mass.: Northeastern University Press, 2005. Pp. xv, 318. $40.00.) University of Tennessee at Martin Reviewed by Daniel McDonough

Sir Walter: Walter Hagen and the Invention of Professional Golf. By Tom Clavin. (New York, N.Y.: Simon and Schuster, 2005. Pp. 384. $26.00.) Colby College Reviewed by Richard J. Moss

America's Failing Empire: U.S. Foreign Relations since the Cold War. By Warren I. Cohen. (Malden, Mass.: Blackwell Publishing, 2005. Pp. 204. $21.95.) Davidson College Reviewed by Ralph B. Levering

A Sailor's History of the United Sates Navy. By Thomas J. Cutler. (Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 2005. Pp. xxiv, 224. $27.95.) Georgia Institute of Technology Reviewed by Maxine Turner

European Metals in Native Hands: Rethinking Technological Change, 1640–1683. By Kathleen L. Ehrhardt. (Tuscaloosa, Ala.: University of Alabama Press, 2005. Pp. xiv, 253. $29.95.) Arkansas Archeological Survey Reviewed by Jeffrey M. Mitchem

Black and White Manhattan: The History of Racial Formation in Colonial New York City. By Thelma Wills Foote. (New York, N.Y.: Oxford University Press, 2004. Pp. x, 334. $27.50.) University of Colorado at Colorado Springs Reviewed by Harlow W. Sheidley

West of Emerson: The Design of Manifest Destiny. By Kris Fresonke. (Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press, 2003. Pp. xii, 201. $19.95.) Arizona State University Reviewed by Karen J. Leong

Men in the Middle: Searching for Masculinity in the 1950s. By James Gilbert. (Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press, 2005. Pp. x, 269. $39.00.) University of New England Reviewed by David Kuchta

Environmentalism and the Government. By Richard P. Hammond and Thomas J. Curran. (Malabar, Fla.: Krieger Publishing Company, 2005. Pp. ix, 131. $19.50.) Lehigh University Reviewed by Stephen H. Cutcliffe

The Whig Revival, 1809–1830. By William Anthony Hay. (New York, N.Y.: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005. Pp. xiii, 235. $65.00.) University of Wisconsin at Stevens Point Reviewed by Nancy LoPatin-Lummis

The Postmodernist Turn: American Thought and Culture in the 1970s. By J. David Hoeveler Jr. (Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield, 2004. Pp. vii, 225. $27.95.) Ohio State University Reviewed by David Steigerwald

Reinventing the Melting Pot: The New Immigrants and What it Means to Be An American. Edited by Tamar Jacoby. (New York, N.Y.: Basic Books, 2004. Pp. 335. $18.00.) University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee Reviewed by Rachel Buff

“Don't Sleep with Stevens!”: The J. P. Stevens Campaign and the Struggle to Organize the South, 1963–1980. By Timothy J. Minchin. (Gainesville, Fla.: University Press of Florida, 2005. Pp. xvi, 239. $59.95.) Cleveland State University Reviewed by David J. Goldberg

From Welfare to Workfare: The Unintended Consequences of Liberal Reform, 1945–1965. By Jennifer Mittelstadt. (Chapel Hill, N.C.: University of North Carolina Press, 2005. Pp. xiii, 267. $19.95.) Ripon College Reviewed by Barbara McGowan

Laboring Women: Reproduction and Gender in New World Slavery. By Jennifer L. Morgan. (Philadelphia, Pa.: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2004. Pp. 279. $19.95.) Loyola Marymount University Reviewed by Cara Anzilotti

Standard of Living: The Measure of the Middle Class in Modern America. By Marina Moskowitz. (Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004. Pp. xii, 300. $45.00.) Cornell University Reviewed by Stuart M. Blumin

Wonder Shows: Performing Science, Magic, and Religion in America. By Fred Nadis. (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 2005. Pp. xiv, 318. $26.95.) University of Michigan Reviewed by Matthew Wittmann

At Work in the Atomic City: A Labor and Social History of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. By Russell B. Olwell. (Knoxville, Tenn.: University of Tennessee Press, 2004. Pp. ix, 165. $29.00.) New Mexico State University Reviewed by Jon Hunner

When Trumpets Call: Theodore Roosevelt after The White House. By Patricia O'Toole. (New York, N.Y.: Simon & Schuster, 2005. Pp. 494. $30.00.) Louisiana State University Reviewed by Richard D. White Jr.

To Die in Cuba: Suicide and Society. By Louis A. Pérez Jr. (Chapel Hill, N.C.: University of North Carolina Press, 2005. Pp. 480. $39.95.) University of California at Los Angeles Reviewed by Adrian Lopez Denis

Second Founding: New York City, Reconstruction, and the Making of American Democracy. By David Quigley. (New York, N.Y.: Hill and Wang, 2004. Pp. ix, 238. $14.00.) California State University, San Bernardino Reviewed by Ward M. McAfee

American Sexual Character: Sex, Gender and National Identity in the Kinsey Reports. By Miriam G. Reumann. (Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press, 2005. Pp. xi, 294. $49.95.) California State University, East Bay Reviewed by Jessica Weiss

Maya Political Science: Time, Astronomy, and the Cosmos. By Prudence M. Rice. (Austin, Tex.: University of Texas Press, 2004. Pp. xxii, 352. $24.95.) University of Texas at Austin Reviewed by Jon C. Lohse

Home on the Rails: Women, the Railroad and the Rise of Public Domesticity. By Amy G. Richter. (Chapel Hill, N.C.: University of North Carolina Press, 2005. Pp. xiii, 272. $19.95.) Clemson University Reviewed by H. Roger Grant

Morning in America: How Ronald Reagan Invented the 1980s. By Gil Troy. (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2005. Pp. 417. $29.95.) Hunter College, City University of New York Reviewed by Jonathan M. Schoenwald

Right Stuff, Wrong Sex: America's First Women in Space Program. By Margaret A. Weitekamp. (Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004. Pp. ix, 232. $45.00.) Yale University Reviewed by Bettyann Holtzmann Kevles

Asia and the Pacific

Forgotten Armies: The Fall of British Asia, 1941–1945. By Christopher Bayly and Tim Harper. (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press, 2005. Pp. xxxiii, 555. $29.95.) University of Manitoba Reviewed by Ian J. Kerr

Making Ecuadorian Histories: Four Centuries of Defining Power. By O. Hugo Benavides. (Austin, Tex.: University of Texas Press, 2004. Pp. 231. $50.00.) Winthrop University Reviewed by Virginia S. Williams

Punishment and Power in the Making of Modern Japan. By Daniel V. Botsman. (Princeton, N.J.: University of Princeton Press, 2005. Pp. xiv, 319. $35.00.) University of California, Irvine Reviewed by Anne Walthall

Geographies of Identity in Nineteenth-Century Japan. By David L. Howell. (Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press, 2005. Pp. x, 261. $55.00.) Wittenberg University Reviewed by James L. Huffman

Beyond the Bronze Pillars: Envoy Poetry and the Sino-Vietnamese Relationship. By Liam C. Kelley. (Honolulu, Hawaii: University of Hawaii Press, 2005. Pp. xiii, 267. $45.00.) Temple University Reviewed by Nguyen Thi Dieu

Crisis in North Korea: The Failure of De-Stalinization, 1956. By Andrei Lankov. (Honolulu, Hawaii: University of Hawaii Press, 2005. Pp. xv, 274. $48.00.) Rikkyo University Reviewed by Mark E. Caprio

The Emergence of Modern Southeast Asia: A New History. Edited by Norman G. Owen. (Honolulu, Hawaii: University of Hawaii Press, 2005. Pp. xxiii, 541. $25.00.) National University of Singapore Reviewed by Anthony Reid

Burning and Building: Schooling and State Formation in Japan, 1750–1890. By Brian Platt. (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Asia Center, 2004. Pp. xii, 325. $45.00.) University of Iowa Reviewed by Stephen Vlastos

Europe

Daily Life in the Roman City: Rome, Pompeii, and Ostia. By Gregory S. Aldrete. (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2004. Pp. xvi, 280. $49.95.) University of Pennsylvania Reviewed by Dorian Borbonus

Paris in Despair: Art and Everyday Life under Siege (1870–71). By Hollis Clayson. (Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press, 2002. Pp. xxxi, 485. $35.00.) Oberlin College Reviewed by Patricia Mathews

Perilous Performances: Gender and Regency in Early Modern France. By Katherine Crawford. (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2004. Pp. x, 297. $49.95.) University of Exeter Reviewed by Keith Cameron

Napoleon: A Political Life. By Steven Englund. (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2005. Pp. xiv, 575. $18.95.) University of South Carolina Reviewed by Owen Connelly

The Emperor Justinian and the Byzantine Empire. By James Allan Evans. (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 2005. Pp. xxii, 178. $45.00.) University of Mississippi Reviewed by James J. Cooke

A Critical History of Early Rome. By Gary Forsythe. (Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press, 2005. Pp. xvi, 400. $45.00.) Ball State University Reviewed by James S. Ruebel

Masculinity, Autocracy, and the Russian University, 1804–1863. By Rebecca Friedman. (Basingstoke, England: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005. Pp. x, 195. $90.00.) Oglethorpe University Reviewed by Alexander M. Martin

National Cleansing: Retribution against Nazi Collaborators in Postwar Czechoslovakia. By Benjamin Frommer. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005. Pp. xv, 387. $70.00.) University of Warwick Reviewed by Robin Okey

Born to Rule: Five Reigning Consorts, Granddaughters of Queen Victoria. By Julia P. Gelardi. (New York, N.Y.: St. Martin Press, 2005. Pp. xv, 457. $29.95.) University of Exeter Reviewed by John Plunkett

Sex after Fascism: Memory and Morality in Twentieth-Century Germany. By Dagmar Herzog. (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2005. Pp. i, 361. $29.95.) New York University Reviewed by Mary Nolan

The Victorians and Sport. By Mike Huggins. (London: Hambledon and London, 2004. Pp. xi, 318. $29.95.) Red Deer College Reviewed by James W. Martens

Restoration Scotland, 1660–1690: Royalist Politics, Religion and Ideas. By Clare Jackson. (Woodbridge, VA: Boydell Press, 2003. Pp. ix, 249. $85.00.) Eastern Illinois University Reviewed by Newton E. Key

The Navy and Government in Early Modern France, 1572–1661. By Alan James. (London: The Royal Historical Society, 2004. Pp. ix, 175. $70.00.) James Madison University Reviewed by Philip F. Riley

A Vanished World: Medieval Spain's Golden Age of Enlightenment. By Chris Lowney. (New York, N.Y.: Free Press, 2005. Pp. 303. $26.00.) University of New Haven Reviewed by Paulette L. Pepin

Kingship and Politics in the Late Ninth Century: Charles the Fat and the End of the Carolingian Empire. By Simon MacLean. (New York, N.Y.: Cambridge University Press, 2003. Pp. xix, 262. $70.00.) Colorado State University Reviewed by Harry Rosenberg

The English Gentleman Merchant at Work: Madras and the City of London 1660–1740. By Søren Mentz. (Copenhagen, Denmark: Museum Tusculanum Press, 2005. Pp. 304. $16.95.) University of North Texas Reviewed by Marilyn Morris

The Creation of the Modern German Army: General Walther Reinhardt and the Weimar Republic, 1914–1930. By William Mulligan. (New York, N.Y.: Berghahn Books, 2005. Pp. 246. $70.00.) University of Massachusetts, Boston Reviewed by Paul Bookbinder

Strange Histories: The Trial of the Pig, the Walking Dead, and Other Matters of Fact from the Medieval and Renaissance Worlds. By Darren Oldridge. (London: Routledge, 2005. Pp. x, 198. $29.95.) Ohio State University Reviewed by David Cressy

The Somme. By Robin Prior and Trevor Wilson. (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2005. Pp. vi, 352. $35.00.) University of Southern Mississippi Reviewed by Michael S. Neiberg

Royal Spectacle: The 1860 Visit of the Prince of Wales to Canada and the United States. By Ian Radforth. (Toronto, Canada: University of Toronto Press, 2004. Pp. xi, 469. $39.95.) Parkland College Reviewed by Marsh Wilkinson Jones

War in the Wild East: The German Army and Soviet Partisans. By Ben Shepard. (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2004. Pp. 300. $29.95.) Transylvania University Reviewed by Kenneth Slepyan

Parliamentary Politics of a County and Its Town: General Elections in Suffolk and Ipswich in the Eighteenth Century. By Susan Mitchell Sommers. (Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2002. Pp. xxiv, 218. $85.95.) University of Manchester Reviewed by Frank O’Gorman

When the King Took Flight. By Timothy Tackett. (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003. Pp. 270. $15.95.) University of Wisconsin—Madison Reviewed by Suzanne Desan

The Artisan of Ipswich: Craftsmanship and Community in Colonial New England. By Robert Tarule. (Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004. Pp. vii, 155. $42.00.) Youngstown State University Reviewed by Martha I. Pallante

Political Empiricism and Early Political Economy: Gregory King's 1696 Estimates of National Wealth and Population. By John A. Taylor. (Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2005. Pp. x, 195. $84.95.) Earlham College Reviewed by Peter Cline

Cities of God. The Religion of the Italian Communes, 1125–1325. By Augustine Thompson. (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2005. Pp. xiv, 502. $65.00.) University of Louisville Reviewed by Blake R. Beattie

The Trojan War. By Carol G. Thomas and Craig Conant. (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2005. Pp. xvii, 209. $45.00.) Tel Aviv University Reviewed by Margalit Finkelberg

Finding People in Early Greece. By Carol G. Thomas. (Columbia, Mo.: University of Missouri Press, 2005. Pp. xiv, 154. $34.95.) American School of Classical Studies at Athens Reviewed by Stefanie A. H. Kennell

General, Comparative, Historiographical

Ages in Chaos: James Hutton and the Discovery of Deep Time. By Stephen Baxter. (New York, N.Y.: Forge, 2004. Pp. vi, 246. $23.95.) University of Oklahoma Reviewed by Kenneth L. Taylor

The Born-Einstein Letters 1916–1955: Friendship, Politics and Physics in Uncertain Times. By Max Born. (New York, N.Y.: Macmillan, 2005. Pp. xxxviii, 235. $26.95.) Washington University in St. Louis Reviewed by John S. Rigden

Compass: A Story of Exploration and Innovation. By Alan Gurney. (New York, N.Y.: W. W. Norton & Company, 2004. Pp. 307. $22.95.) University of West Georgia Reviewed by Ronald S. Love

A Short History of Communism. By Robert Harvey. (New York, N.Y.: Thomas Dunne Books, 2004. Pp. xvi, 422. $29.95.) University of Illinois at Chicago Reviewed by Jonathan W. Daly

Circuits in the Sea: The Men, the Ships, and the Atlantic Cable. By Chester G. Hearn. (Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2004. Pp. xiii, 280. $39.95.) University of Bath Reviewed by R. Angus Buchanan

Command at Sea: Naval Command and Control since the Sixteenth Century. By Michael A. Palmer. (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2005. Pp. x, 377. $29.95.) Roehampton University Reviewed by Susan Rose