The Connecticut Effect: The Great Compromise of 1787 and the History of Small State Impact on Electoral College Outcomes


  • Todd Estes is Associate Professor of History at Oakland University in Rochester, Michigan. He is the author of The Jay Treaty Debate, Public Opinion, and the Evolution of Early American Political Culture (2006) and is at work on a book manuscript about the ratification of the Constitution. He wishes to thank Fred I. Greenstein, Mark Wahlgren Summers, and Bruce Zellers for their very helpful comments on an earlier version of this article as well as the editor and the anonymous readers for The Historian.