• multiform VT;
  • re-entry circuits;
  • exit points;
  • use of specialized conduction tissues

Electrophysiological studies were performed in three patients with chronic recurrent ventricular tachycardia (VT) associated with coronary artery disease. In each case the ventricular origin of the tachycardia was confirmed and induction of tachycardia by programmed stimulation suggested a re-entry mechanism. Multiple types of ventricular tachycardia were observed which differed in cycle length, QRS morphology, timing of local epicardial and endocardial ventricular electrograms and the use of the specialized conduction system for propagation. There was evidence of one or more re-entry circuits arising in or near previously infarcted areas, with features of cycle length alternation, change in exit points and variations in subsequent conduction through the myocardium and specialized conduction tissues. These findings suggest multiform VT can be due to a number of factors. A modified surgical approach is recommended for management of medically refractory VT when there is evidence of multiple types.