• cardiac simulation;
  • dual chamber pacing;
  • pacemaker programming

A mathematical model of the cardiac conduction system, including external pacemakers, has been developed. The heart is modeled as a network in which the impulse propagation is described by differential equations; several arrhythmia-generating mechanisms, such as modulated parasystole, reflection, macro and micro re-entry and block, can be simulated. Different kinds of pacemaker modes have been incorporated in the model, thus making it possible to simulate the interaction between the heart and the pacemaker. The model can be tuned by the user according to electrophysiological data so that pacemaker programs can be tested under different underlying conditions. During a simulation, the program generates ECG signals and pacemaker diagnostic diagrams. This model can be used for training and testing, and also as a support system when searching for the optimal pacing therapy for a particular patient.