• pacemaker leads;
  • electrochemistry;
  • titanium nitride

SCHALDACH, M., ET AL.: Sputter-Deposited TiN Electrode Coatings for Superior Sensing and Pacing Performance. The sensing and pacing performance of pacemaker electrodes is characterized by the electrochemical properties of the electrode/tissue interface affecting tissue reactions and the kinetics of the ionic exchange. The usually smooth metallic electrode surface results in a high pass filter characteristic. To better match the electrode's filter characteristic to the spectral content of the depolarization signal, various combinations of electrode shape, material and surface structure have been researched. The electrode with sputter-deposited TiN coating presented in this report has been designed to meet the demand for low acute as well as chronic thresholds and superior sensing performance not only with respect to spontaneous activity but also regarding the detection of the evoked response. The clinical results obtained with this electrode prove the excellent pacing and sensing properties resulting from minimized polarization losses and optimized filtering of the signal to be detected, respectively. The acute and chronic clinical advantages over previous concepts are attributed mainly to the biocompatibility of the material used and the microcrystalline surface structure achieved by the coating process. The design concept of the new electrode is presented together with the clinical results obtained. While the advancements in microelectronics and battery technology have certainly formed the basis for the development of pulse generators featuring an ever increasing versatility of functions at the same or even smaller pacemaker dimensions, from a point of view of pacing system performance the development of improved electrode concepts as the one presented must be regarded as equally indispensable.