SNOECK, J., ET AL.: Evolution of P Wave Characteristics After Pacemaker Implantation. This study is an investigation of the long-term effects of VVI pacing on the atrium as derived from the evolution of P wave characteristics of 285 patients. The occurrence of left and right atrial disease is demonstrated as well as the evolution of left atrial hypertrophy in some cases. A comparison is made with DDD pacing and special attention is given to the progression to atrial fibrillation.