Use of a Three-Dimensional, Nonfluoroscopic Mapping System for Catheter Ablation of Typical Atrial Flutter

Authors

  • HIROSHI NAKAGAWA,

    Corresponding author
    1. Cardiovascular Section/Department of Medicine, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center and the Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma
      Address for reprints: Hiroshi Nakagawa, M.D., Ph.D., Department of Medicine/Cardiovascular Section, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, 920 S.L. Young Blvd, Room WP3120, Oklahoma City. OK 73104. Fax: (405) 271–2619.
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  • WARREN M. JACKMAN

    1. Cardiovascular Section/Department of Medicine, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center and the Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma
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Address for reprints: Hiroshi Nakagawa, M.D., Ph.D., Department of Medicine/Cardiovascular Section, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, 920 S.L. Young Blvd, Room WP3120, Oklahoma City. OK 73104. Fax: (405) 271–2619.

Abstract

Recent studies have shown that typical atrial flutter (AFL) results from right atrial reentry around the tricuspid annulus (TA), constrained between the TA and crista terminalis (CT) on the free-wall and the TA and eustachian ridge (ER) on the septum. Creation of a complete line of conduction block across the subeustachian isthmus, between the TA and ER, elminates AFL. The accuracy of fluoroscopy in localizing the anatomical boundaries and previous radiofrequency application sites is limited. This article describes an approach for utilizing a new three-dimensional nonfluoroscopic electroanatomical mapping system (CARTO) to examine the global right atrial activation pattern in patients during AFL, localize the anatomical boundaries, and create a complete line of conduction block by ablation across the subeustachian isthmus. During AFL, the locations of CT and ER are identified by double atrial potentials recorded along the intercaval region and between the inferior vena cava and coronary sinus ostium, respectively. Radiofrequency ablation across the subeustachian isthmus is performed during coronary sinus pacing. Beginning at TA, the ablation electrode is moved toward ER in 2–3 mm increments. Each movement is marked on the right atrial map to visualize the ablation line. In the event of residual conduction across the ablation line, defects in the ablation line are located by mapping along the previous ablation sites guided by CARTO system to locate the transition from the double atrial potentials (indicating block) to a single atrial potential (indicating conduction). Radiofrequency ablation to the site showing the single atrial potential along the ablation line produces complete conduction block across the subeustachian isthmus. In conclusion, the new electroanatomical mapping system allows precise 3-D localization of the anatomical boundaries of the AFL reentrant circuit, and facilitates ablation by accurately locating defects in the ablation line.(PACE 1998; 21:1279–1286)

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