• atrial fibrillation;
  • ablation;
  • GP ablation;
  • PV firing

Atrial fibrillation (AF) was initiated by rapid firing from left superior pulmonary vein (PV) by administration of isoproterenol (ISP) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) before ablation. After successful isolation of all PVs, ISP and ATP were administered again. PVs were still isolated but an episode of rapid firing was observed inside the left PV isolation line during sinus rhythm. Radiofrequency energy was then delivered to the areas of superior left ganglionated plexus (GP) and inferior left GP. Then, PV firing could no longer be initiated. It suggests additional GP ablation may have additional benefit to circumferential PV isolation, to reduce the incidence of AF recurrence. (PACE 2012; 35:e316–e319)