Sources of Funding: This study was supported in part by research grants from Yonsei University College of Medicine (6-2009-0176, 6-2010-0059, 7-2009-0583, 7-2010-0676) and the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea, funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (2010-0021993).
Importance of Tachycardia Cycle Length for Differentiating Typical Atrial Flutter from Scar-Related in Adult Congenital Heart Disease
Article first published online: 16 AUG 2012
©2012, The Authors. Journal compilation ©2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology
Volume 35, Issue 11, pages 1338–1347, November 2012
How to Cite
UHM, J.-S., MUN, H.-S., WI, J., SHIM, J., HWANG, H. J., SUNG, J.-H., KIM, J.-Y., PAK, H.-N., LEE, M.-H. and JOUNG, B. (2012), Importance of Tachycardia Cycle Length for Differentiating Typical Atrial Flutter from Scar-Related in Adult Congenital Heart Disease. Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology, 35: 1338–1347. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-8159.2012.03494.x
- Issue published online: 7 NOV 2012
- Article first published online: 16 AUG 2012
- Received January 1, 2012; revised April 30, 2012; accepted July 2, 2012.
- atrial flutter;
- cavotricuspid isthmus;
- congenital heart disease;
- intraatrial reentrant tachycardia;
Background: Radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) for intraatrial reentrant tachycardia (IART) in congenital heart disease (CHD) remains difficult.
Methods: Thirty-four consecutive adult patients (age, 37.6 ± 12.8 years; male, 21) with previously repaired CHD and IART underwent an electrophysiological study and RFCA. CHD included atrial septal defect (ASD, n = 14), tetralogy of Fallot (n = 11), ventricular septal defect (n = 4), pulmonary atresia (n = 2), atrioventricular septal defect (n = 1), transposition of the great arteries (n = 1), and double-outlet right ventricle (n = 1).
Results: Duration of CHD repair to IART onset was 19.1 ± 8.5 years. Thirty and four patients had single- and double-loop reentrant tachycardia, respectively. Among the total of 38 IARTs, which were mapped, 22 (57.9%) and 13 (34.2%) IARTs were cavotricuspid isthmus (CTI)-dependent atrial flutter (AFL) and scar-related AFL, respectively. Typical AFL electrocardiography findings including definite sawtooth appearance in inferior leads and positive F wave in lead V1 were observed in only 12 of 21 patients (57.1%) with CTI-dependent AFL. CTI-dependent AFL had a significantly longer tachycardia cycle length (TCL) than scar-related AFL (267.6 ± 34.4 ms and 235.9 ± 37.0 ms, respectively; P = 0.031). TCL > 250 ms had 79% sensitivity as the cutoff value for differentiating CTI-dependent from scar-related AFL. The acute success rates of RFCA in CTI-dependent and scar-related AFLs were 85.7% and 90.0%, respectively. The recurrence rates in CTI-dependent and scar-related AFLs were 11.1% and 11.1%, respectively, during a follow-up of 21.2 ± 28.3 months.
Conclusions: CTI-dependent AFL was the most common IART in adult patients with repaired CHD and was easily manageable by RFCA. TCL might help to differentiate CTI-dependent AFL from other IARTs. (PACE 2012;35:1338–1347)