• catheter ablation;
  • electroanatomical mapping;
  • electrogram;
  • implantable defibrillator;
  • pace-mapping;
  • ventricular tachycardia

ICD Electrograms and Origin of Impulses. Introduction: The implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) electrogram (EG) is a documentation of ventricular tachycardia. We prospectively analyzed EGs from ICD electrodes located at the right ventricle apex to establish (1) ability to regionalize origin of left ventricle (LV) impulses, and (2) spatial resolution to distinguish between paced sites. Methods and Results: LV electro-anatomic maps were generated in 15 patients. ICD-EGs were recorded during pacing from 22 ± 10 LV sites. Voltage of far-field EG deflections (initial, peak, final) and time intervals between far-field and bipolar EGs were measured. Blinded visual analysis was used for spatial resolution. Initial deflections were more negative and initial/peak ratios were larger for lateral versus septal and superior versus inferior sites. Time intervals were shorter for apical versus basal and septal versus lateral sites. Best predictive cutoff values were voltage of initial deflection <–1.24 mV, and initial/peak ratio >0.45 for a lateral site, voltage of final deflection <–0.30 for an inferior site, and time interval <80 milliseconds for an apical site. In a subsequent group of 9 patients, these values predicted correctly paced site location in 54–75% and tachycardia exit site in 60–100%. Recognition of paced sites as different by EG inspection was 91% accurate. Sensitivity increased with distance (0.96 if ≥ 2 cm vs 0.84 if < 2 cm, P  <  0.001) and with presence of low-voltage tissue between sites (0.94 vs 0.88, P  <  0.001). Conclusions: Standard ICD-EG analysis can help regionalize LV sites of impulse formation. It can accurately distinguish between 2 sites of impulse formation if they are ≥2 cm apart. (J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol, Vol. 23, pp. 506-514, May 2012)