• atrial flutter;
  • catheter ablation;
  • cardiac hypertrophy;
  • pulmonary hypertension

Atrial Flutter and Pulmonary Hypertension. Background: Radiofrequency ablation is first-line therapy for atrial flutter (AFL). There are no studies of ablation in patients with severe pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH).

Methods: Consecutive patients with severe PAH (systolic pulmonary artery pressure >60 mmHg) and AFL referred for ablation were evaluated. Patients with complex congenital heart disease were excluded.

Results: A total of 14 AFL ablation procedures were undertaken in 12 patients. A total of 75% of patients were female; mean age 49 ± 12 years. SPAP prior to ablation was 99 ± 35 mmHg. Baseline 6-minute walk distance was 295 ± 118 m. ECG demonstrated a typical AFL pattern in only 42% of cases. Baseline AFL cycle length was longer in PAH patients compared to controls (295 ± 53 ms vs 252 ± 35 ms, P = 0.006).

Cavotricuspid isthmus dependence was verified in 86% of cases. Acute success was obtained in 86% of procedures. SPAP decreased from 114 ± 44 mmHg to 82 ± 38 mmHg after ablation (P = 0.004). BNP levels were lower postablation (787 ± 832 pg/mL vs 522 ± 745 pg/mL, P = 0.02). Complications were seen in 14%. A total of 80% (8/10) of patients were free of AFL at 3 months; 75% (6/8) at 1 year.

Conclusion: Ablation of AFL in severe PAH patients is feasible, with good short- and intermediate-term success rates. The ECG pattern is not a reliable marker of isthmus dependence. The SPAP and BNP levels may decrease postablation. AFL may be a marker of poor outcomes in patients with PAH with a 1-year mortality rate of 42% in this study. This rate is higher than expected in the general PAH population. (J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol, Vol. 23, pp. 1185–1190, November 2012)