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Assessment of Systolic and Diastolic Left Ventricular and Left Atrial Function Using Vector Velocity Imaging in Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy

Authors


Address for correspondence and reprint requests: Navin C. Nanda, M.D., University of Alabama at Birmingham, Heart Station SWB/S102, 619, 19th Street South, Birmingham, AL 35249. Fax: +1-205-934-6747; E-mail: nanda@uab.edu

Abstract

Five adult patients with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC) diagnosed by usual criteria were studied with velocity vector imaging (VVI) on admission and at follow-up, when their LV function had improved, as assessed by 2D TTE wall-motion score (WMS) index. Averaged peak segmental longitudinal strain (S) in systole, and velocity (V) and strain rate (SR) in both systole and diastole were measured from apical 4- (A4C) and 2-chamber views (A2C) in all patients. The data obtained by VVI were analyzed separately for involved and uninvolved segments, which were independently assessed by WMS. In the involved segments, systolic S, V, SR, and diastolic SR improved (P-value < 0.05) on follow-up. Diastolic V showed a trend toward improvement but did not reach statistical significance. In the uninvolved segments, none of the parameters improved significantly either during systole or diastole. In three of these five patients, left atrial (LA) walls were also studied by placing region of interest (ROI) points in the middle of each wall. Peak segmental LA systolic and diastolic V and SR as well as systolic S were obtained for both involved and uninvolved LA walls which were assessed independently using WMS similar to LV. In the involved LA walls, none of the atrial systolic and diastolic parameters changed significantly but all parameters with the exception of systolic V showed a tendency toward improvement during follow-up. Among the uninvolved LA walls, none changed significantly but atrial systolic SR and, diastolic V and SR tended to increase during follow-up. Our retrospective study using VVI demonstrates that TC patients also have LV systolic and diastolic longitudinal dysfunction, not just systolic radial dysfunction as assessed by traditional 2D TTE indices. Longitudinal LA dysfunction may also be present.

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