Complex Atrial Septal Defect: Percutaneous Repair Guided by Three-Dimensional Echocardiography


Address for correspondence and reprint requests: Alexander Georgakis, M.D., Temple University Hospital, 3401 N. Broad Street, Zone C, Suite 945, Philadelphia, PA 19140. Fax: 215-707-4521; E-mail:


Three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (3D TEE) has been used to guide the percutaneous repair of simple atrial septal defects (ASDs). There has been limited experience in using this imaging modality to guide complex ASD repair. In this report, we describe how 3D TEE was used to guide the repair of a complex, multifenestrated ASD. In a single view, 3D TEE provides a superior anatomic definition when compared to the traditional two-dimensional echocardiography. We believe that this emerging technology will play a critical role as the number and complexity of percutaneous techniques treating structural heart disease continue to rise. (Echocardiography 2010;27:590-593)