We are now able to analyze follow-up data up to 10 years after percutaneous mitral commissurotomy (PMC). In clinical terms, several large single-center series confirm the late efficacy of the procedure in a large population, comprising a variety of patient subsets. When the immediate results are unsatisfactory, prognosis is poor and surgery should be carried out when the clinical conditions allow it. Conversely, if PMC is initially successful, the clinical results are excellent and late deterioration is mainly related to restenosis. Preliminary series have shown that repeat balloon commissurotomy may be performed successfully in such patients. The prediction of late results after balloon commissurotomy is multifactorial and based on clinical parameters, valve anatomy, and the immediate results of the procedure. Randomized studies have shown that the long-term results of balloon commissurotomy are as good as those of surgery in patients with favorable characteristics. In the others, there has been no comparative study and patient selection should take into account the multifactorial nature of the prediction of late results. Overall, these good long-term results have led to an increased use of balloon commissurotomy in the treatment of patients with mitral stenosis.