Conscious Sedation with Intermittent Midazolam and Fentanyl in Electrophysiology Procedures

Authors

  • ROMAN T. PACHULSKI M.D., F.A.C.C.,

    Corresponding author
    1. From the Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Health Sciences Center at Stony Brook, State University of New York, Stony Brook, New York
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  • DANIELLE C. ADKINS B.A.,,

    1. From the Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Health Sciences Center at Stony Brook, State University of New York, Stony Brook, New York
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  • HUMAIR MIRZA M.D.

    1. From the Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Health Sciences Center at Stony Brook, State University of New York, Stony Brook, New York
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Address for reprints: Roman T. Pachulski, M.D., F.A.C.C., Director of Arrhythmia Services and Electrophysiology Laboratory, Health Sciences Center T-17–020, SUNY Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 11794–8171. Fax: 631-.444–6686; e-mail: romano1866@aol.com

Abstract

Objectives: To determine the safety and efficacy of intermittent midazolam and fentanyl conscious sedation for electrophysiology procedures (EP). Background: Intermittent midazolam and fentanyl conscious sedation was administered in 700 consecutive cases (175 radiofrequency ablations, 163 EP studies, 261 pacemakers, and 101 implantable cardioverter-defibrillators) for 471 patients (239 males, 51%) mean age 65 ± 15 years. The mean dose of midazolam was 0.063 mg/kg/hr and fentanyl was 0.591μg/kg/hr. Methods: Cardiac rate and rhythm were monitored continuously, while blood pressure and arterial oxygen saturation were noninvasively assessed evevy 5 minutes. Drugs were administered in aliquots of 0.5 to 2.0 mg of midazolam and 6.25 to 25 μg of fentanyl as determined by clinical condition every 15 to 30 minutes. Results: There were no deaths. In no case was endotracheal intubation required. Mild hypoxemia (SaO2 > 80%, but < 90%) occurred in 17 cases (2.4%) and was easily reversed with verbal stimulation and oropharyngeal repositioning (12 cases, 1.7%), increased F1O2 (3 cases, 0.4%), or intravenous naloxone (2 cases, 0.3%). Reversible hypotension (systolic blood pressure < 90, but > 60 mmHg) occurred in 14 patients (2.0%) and was corrected with intravenous crystalloid bolus or flumazenil (10 cases, 1.4%) or inotrope infusion (4 cases, 0.6%). No patient stay was prolonged due to sedation. Only five patients (0.7%) had any recollection of the procedure, while two (0.3%) were aware of pain. All hypoxemic episodes occurred during the first hour, whereas 43% (6/14) of hypotensive episodes occurred after the first hour. Conclusion: Conscious sedation with intermittent midazolam and fentanyl is safe and eficacious for a broad range of EP procedures. (J Interven Cardiol 2001; 14:143–146)

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